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Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin


Bruce R. Johnson, Ph.D. Cornell University AND

William C. Ober, M.D. Illustration Coordinator

Claire W. Garrison, R.N. Illustrator

Andrew C. Silverthorn, M.D. Clinical Consultant

San Francisco Boston New York Cape Town Hong Kong London Madrid Mexico City Montreal Munich Paris Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Executive Editor: Deirdre Espinoza Project Editor: Katy German Editorial Development Manager: Barbara Yien Development Editor: Anne Reid Assistant Editor: Shannon Cutt Managing Editor: Wendy Earl Production Supervisor: Karen Gulliver Copyeditor: Antonio Padial Compositor: Aptara, Inc. Text and Cover Designer: Riezebos Holzbaur Design Group Illustrators: William C. Ober, Claire W. Garrison Photo Researcher: Maureen Spuhler Image Rights and Permissions Manager: Zina Arabia Image Permissions Coordinator: Elaine Soares Senior Manufacturing Buyer: Stacey Weinberger Marketing Manager: Derek Perrigo Cover Image: Fluorescent light micrograph of Purkinje cells (green) in the cerebellum of the brain. The cell bodies are found at the boundary between the granular layer (blue/red) and the molecular layer (red/green). Magnification: *380 when printed 10 cm wide. Thomas Deerinck, NCMIR/Photo Researchers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 1301 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 1900 E. Lake Ave., Glenview, IL 60025. For information regarding permissions, call (847) 486-2635. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Silverthorn, Dee Unglaub, 1948 Human physiology: an integrated approach / Dee Unglaub Silverthorn; with William C. Ober, illustration coordinator; Claire W. Garrison, illustrator; Andrew C. Silverthorn, clinical consultant; with contributions by Bruce R. Johnson 5th ed. p. cm Includes index ISBN-13: 978-0-321-55980-7 ISBN-10: 0-321-55980-0 1. Human physiology. I. Title QP34.5.S55 2009 612 dc22 2008050369 ISBN 10: 0-321-55980-0; ISBN 13: 978-0-321-55980-7 (Student edition) ISBN 10: 0-321-57129-0; ISBN 13: 978-0-321-57129-8 (Professional Copy)

Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 QWV 11 12 10 09 08 Manufactured in the United States of America.

About the Author

DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN studied biology as an undergraduate at Tulane University and received a Ph.D. in marine science from the University of South Carolina. Her research interest is epithelial transport, and recent work in her laboratory has focused on transport properties of the chick allantoic membrane. She began her teaching career in the Physiology Department at the Medical University of South Carolina but over the years has taught a wide range of students, from medical and college students to those still preparing for higher education. At the University of Texas she teaches physiology in both lecture and laboratory settings, and instructs graduate students in a course on developing teaching skills in the life sciences. She has received numerous teaching awards and honors, including the 2009

ABOUT THE ILLUSTRATORS WILLIAM C. OBER, M.D. (art coordinator and illustrator) received his undergraduate degree from Washington and Lee University and his M.D. from the University of Virginia. While in medical school, he also studied in the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. After graduation, Dr. Ober completed a residency in Family Practice and later was on the faculty at the University of Virginia in the Department of Family Medicine. He is currently an Instructor in the Division of Sports Medicine at UVA and is part of the Core Faculty at Shoals Marine Laboratory, where he teaches Biological Illustration every summer. The textbooks illustrated by Medical & Scientific Illustration have won numerous design and illustration awards.

Outstanding Undergraduate Science Teacher Award from

CLAIRE W. GARRISON, R.N. (illustrator) practiced pediatric

the Society for College Science Teachers, the American

and obstetric nursing before turning to medical illustration as


a full-time career. She returned to school at Mary Baldwin

Lecturer and Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Educator of the

College where she received her degree with distinction in stu-

Year, and multiple awards from UT-Austin, including the

dio art. Following a 5-year apprenticeship, she has worked as

Burnt Orange Apple Award. The first edition of this textbook

Dr. Ober s partner in Medical and Scientific Illustration since

won the 1998 Robert W. Hamilton Author Award for best

1986. She is on the Core Faculty at Shoals Marine Laboratory

textbook published in 1997 98 by a University of Texas fac-

and co-teaches the Biological Illustration course.


Society s



ulty member. Dee recently completed six years as editor-inchief of Advances in Physiology Education and she works with members of the International Union of Physiological


Sciences to improve physiology education in developing

ANDREW C. SILVERTHORN, M.D. is a graduate of the

countries. She is a member of the American Physiological

United States Military Academy (West Point). He served in the

Society, the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society, the

infantry in Vietnam, and upon his return entered medical

Society for Comparative and Integrative Biology, the

school at the Medical University of South Carolina in

Association for Biology Laboratory Education, and the Society

Charleston. He was chief resident in family medicine at the

for College Science Teachers. Her free time is spent creating

University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, and is currently

multimedia fiber art and enjoying the Texas hill country with

a family physician in solo practice in Austin, Texas. When

her husband, Andy, and their dogs.

Andy is not busy seeing patients he may be found on the golf course or playing with his chocolate lab, Lady Godiva.


lab manual for Neurophysiology and the Laboratory Manual


for Physiology, and he continues development of model prepa-


rations for student neuroscience laboratories. He has taught

Research Associate in Neurobiology

in faculty workshops sponsored by NSF (Crawdad) and the

and Behavior at Cornell University.


He earned biology degrees at

Kaleidoscope, and in graduate and undergraduate neuroscience




Florida State University (B.A.),

laboratory courses at the University of Copenhagen, the Marine

Florida Atlantic University (M.S.),

Biological Laboratory, and the Shoals Marine Laboratory. He has

and at the Marine Biological

received outstanding educator and distinguished teaching

Laboratory in Woods Hole (Ph.D.)

awards at Cornell University, and the FUN Educator of the

through the Boston University

Year Award. He is presently the FUN president. His research

Marine Program. At Cornell he

addresses the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of motor net-

teaches an undergraduate laboratory course entitled Principles

work plasticity.

of Neurophysiology. He is a coauthor of Crawdad: a CD-ROM

This edition is dedicated to North, Michal, Maggie, and Ellie



the next generation.

Contents in Brief Owner s Manual






Basic Cell Processes: Integration and Coordination


Introduction to Physiology


Molecular Interactions


Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues


Energy and Cellular Metabolism


Membrane Dynamics






Mechanics of Breathing


Gas Exchange and Transport


The Kidneys


Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

20 53

546 568 597

622 650


Metabolism, Growth, and Aging



The Digestive System

Communication, Integration, 178 and Homeostasis


Metabolism and Energy Balance


Endocrine Control of Growth 757 and Metabolism


The Immune System


Integrative Physiology III: Exercise


Reproduction and Development



Homeostasis and Control


Introduction to the Endocrine System


Neurons: Cellular and Network 246 Properties


The Central Nervous System


Sensory Physiology


Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control






Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement





782 813 828

Appendix A: Answers to Review A-1 Questions Appendix B: Physics and Math



Appendix C: Genetics



Appendix D: Anatomical Positions D-I of the Body

406 446

Glossary/Index Photo Credits

G-1 Cr-1

Integration of Function


Cardiovascular Physiology


Blood Flow and the Control 512 of Blood Pressure



Molecular Shape Is Related to Molecular Function 27 Biomolecules 28

Contents UNIT


Carbohydrates Are the Most Abundant Biomolecules 28 Lipids Are Structurally the Most Diverse Biomolecules 28 Proteins Are the Most Versatile Biomolecules Some Molecules Combine Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids 33 Nucleotides Transmit and Store Energy and Information 34 Aqueous Solutions, Acids, Bases, and Buffers

BASIC CELL PROCESSES: Integration and Coordination 1 Introduction to Physiology Physiological Systems


Function and Process





Physiology: Moving Beyond the Genome Themes in Physiology The Science of Physiology



Good Scientific Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed 8 Focus on ... Mapping 9 The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Difficult to Interpret 11 Focus on ... Graphs 12 Human Studies Can Take Many Forms 14 Searching and Reading the Scientific Literature Chapter Summary Questions 17 Answers 19


Running Problem: Chromium Supplements Chemistry Review 21 Atoms Are Composed of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons 21 The Number of Protons in the Nucleus Determines the Element 22 Isotopes of an Element Contain Different Numbers of Neutrons 22 Electrons Form Bonds Between Atoms and Capture Energy 23 Molecular Bonds and Shapes 24 Covalent Bonds Are Formed When Adjacent Atoms Share Electrons 24 Ionic Bonds Form When Atoms Gain or Lose Electrons 26 Hydrogen Bonds and Van der Waal Forces Are Weak Interactions Between Atoms 26




2 Molecular Interactions


Not All Molecules Dissolve in Aqueous Solutions 36 There Are Several Ways to Express the Concentration of a Solution 36 The Concentration of Hydrogen Ions in the Body Is Expressed in pH Units 38 Protein Interactions 39



Physiology Is an Integrative Science



Proteins Are Selective About the Molecules They Bind 40 Multiple Factors Can Alter Protein Binding Modulation Alters Protein Binding and Activity Physical Factors Modulate or Inactivate Proteins 43 The Body Regulates the Amount of Protein Present in Cells 43 Reaction Rate Can Reach a Maximum 45 Chapter Summary 47 Questions 49 Answers 51

3 Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues Running Problem: The Pap Test 54 Functional Compartments of the Body

41 41

53 54

The Lumens of Some Hollow Organs Are Outside the Body 54 Functionally, the Body Has Three Fluid Compartments 55 Biological Membranes 55 The Cell Membrane Separates the Cell from Its Environment 56 Membranes Are Mostly Lipid and Protein 56 Membrane Lipids Form a Barrier Between the Cytoplasm and Extracellular Fluid 57 Membrane Proteins May Be Loosely or Tightly Bound to the Membrane 58 Biotechnology: Liposomes for Beauty and Health 60



Membrane Carbohydrates Attach to Both Lipids and Proteins 60 Intracellular Compartments 62

Net Free Energy Change Determines Reaction Reversibility 100 Enzymes 100

Cells Are Divided into Compartments 62 The Cytoplasm Includes the Cytosol, Inclusions, and Organelles 63 Inclusions Are in Direct Contact with the Cytosol 63 Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Come in Three Sizes 63 Microtubules Form Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella 65 The Cytoskeleton Is a Changeable Scaffold 66 Motor Proteins Create Movement 67 Organelles Create Compartments for Specialized Functions 67 The Nucleus Is the Cell s Control Center 70 Tissues of the Body 72 Extracellular Matrix Has Many Functions Cell Junctions Hold Cells Together to Form Tissues 72 Epithelia Provide Protection and Regulate Exchange 74 Connective Tissues Provide Support and Barriers 80 Biotechnology: Growing New Cartilage Muscle and Neural Tissues Are Excitable Tissue Remodeling 84


82 84

Apoptosis Is a Tidy Form of Cell Death 84 Stem Cells Can Create New Specialized Cells Focus on Organs 87 Chapter Summary Questions 90 Answers 92

the Skin



Running Problem: Tay-Sachs Disease Energy in Biological Systems 94

Biotechnology: Separation of Isozymes by Electrophoresis 101 Enzymes May Be Activated, Inactivated, or Modulated 101 Enzymes Lower the Activation Energy of Reactions 102 Reaction Rates Are Variable 102 Reversible Reactions Obey the Law of Mass Action 102 Enzymatic Reactions Can Be Categorized Metabolism 105 Cells Regulate Their Metabolic Pathways ATP Transfers Energy Between Reactions ATP Production 107

105 106

113 113


Glycogen Can Be Made from Glucose 116 Glucose Can Be Made from Glycerol or Amino Acids 116 Acetyl CoA Is an Important Precursor for Lipid Synthesis 117 Proteins Are the Key to Cell Function 117

93 94

Energy Is Used to Perform Work 95 Energy Comes in Two Forms: Kinetic and Potential 96 Energy Can Be Converted from One Form to Another 96 Thermodynamics Is the Study of Energy Use Chemical Reactions 97


Glycolysis Converts Glucose and Glycogen into Pyruvate 108 Anaerobic Metabolism Converts Pyruvate into Lactate 109 Pyruvate Enters the Citric Acid Cycle in Aerobic Metabolism 110 High-Energy Electrons Enter the Electron Transport System 111 ATP Synthesis Is Coupled to Hydrogen Ion Movement 113 One Glucose Molecule Can Yield 30 32 ATP Large Biomolecules Can Be Used to Make ATP Clinical Focus: Energy and Exercise Synthetic Pathways 116


4 Energy and Cellular Metabolism

Enzymes Take Part in Typical Protein Interactions 100

Clinical Focus: Insulin and Metabolism Translating DNA s Code to Protein Is a Complex Process 119


Activation Energy Gets Reactions Started 98 Energy Is Trapped or Released During Reaction 98 Energy Is Transferred Between Molecules During Reactions 100


Emerging Concepts: RNA Interference 119 In Transcription, DNA Guides the Synthesis of RNA 120 Alternative Splicing Creates Multiple Proteins from One DNA Sequence 122 Translation of mRNA Produces a String of Amino Acids 123 Protein Sorting Directs Proteins to Their Destination 124



Proteins Undergo Post-Translational Modification 124 Proteins Are Modified and Packaged in the Golgi Complex 126 Chapter Summary 127 Questions 128 Answers 130

5 Membrane Dynamics


Running Problem: Cystic Fibrosis 133 Mass Balance and Homeostasis 133 Excretion Clears Substances from the Body Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium Transport Occurs Within and Between Compartments 136 Diffusion 136

133 134

Membrane Proteins Function as Structural Proteins, Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters 141 Channel Proteins Form Open, Water-Filled Passageways 143 Carrier Proteins Change Conformation to Move Molecules 144 Facilitated Diffusion Uses Carrier Proteins 145 Active Transport Moves Substances Against Their Concentration Gradients 146 Carrier-Mediated Transport Exhibits Specificity, Competition, and Saturation 148 Vesicular Transport 152 Phagocytosis Creates Vesicles Using the Cytoskeleton 152 Endocytosis Creates Smaller Vesicles 152 Clinical Focus: The Lethal Lipoprotein 154 Exocytosis Releases Molecules Too Large for Transport Proteins 154 Epithelial Transport 154 Epithelial Transport May Be Paracellular or Transcellular 155 Transcellular Transport of Glucose Uses Membrane Protein 156 Transcytosis Uses Vesicles to Cross an Epithelium 157 Osmosis and Tonicity 158

Clinical Focus: Estimating Body Water

Electricity Review 164 The Cell Membrane Enables Separation of Electrical Charge in the Body 165 The Resting Membrane Potential Is Due Mostly to Potassium 167 Changes in Ion Permeability Change the Membrane Potential 169 Integrated Membrane Processes: Insulin and Secretion 171 Chapter Summary Questions 174 Answers 176

Diffusion Uses Only the Energy of Molecular Movement 136 Lipophilic Molecules Can Diffuse Through the Phospholipid Bilayer 139 Protein-Mediated Transport 141

The Body Is Mostly Water 158 The Body Is in Osmotic Equilibrium

Osmolarity Describes the Number of Particles in Solution 159 Tonicity of a Solution Describes the Volume Change of a Cell Placed in That Solution 161 The Resting Membrane Potential 164


6 Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis


Running Problem: Diabetes Mellitus Cell-to-Cell Communication 179


Gap Junctions Create Cytoplasmic Bridges Contact-Dependent Signals Require Cell-to-Cell Contact 180 Paracrine and Autocrine Signals Carry Out Local Communication 180 Long-Distance Communication May Be Electrical or Chemical 180 Cytokines May Act as Both Local and Long-Distance Signals 180 Signal Pathways 181

Receptor Proteins Are Located Inside the Cell or on the Cell Membrane 182 Membrane Proteins Facilitate Signal Transduction 182 Receptor-Enzymes Have Protein Kinase or Guanylyl Cyclase Activity 186 Most Signal Transduction Uses G Proteins 186 Many Lipophobic Hormones Use GPCR-cAMP Pathways 187 G Protein Coupled Receptors Also Use Lipid-Derived Second Messengers 188 Integrin Receptors Transfer Information from the Extracellular Matrix 188 The Most Rapid Signal Pathways Change Ion Flow Through Channels 189 Novel Signal Molecules 190 Calcium Is an Important Intracellular Signal

159 159



Biotechnology: Measuring Calcium Signals 191 Gases Are Ephemeral Signal Molecules 191


Clinical Focus: From Dynamite to Vasodilation 192 Some Lipids Are Important Paracrine Signals Modulation of Signal Pathways 193


Receptors Exhibit Saturation, Specificity, and Competition 193 Up- and Down-Regulation Enable Cells to Modulate Responses 194 Cells Must Be Able to Terminate Signal Pathways 195 Many Diseases and Drugs Target the Proteins of Signal Transduction 195 Control Pathways: Response and Feedback Loops 196 Cannon s Postulates Describe Regulated Variables and Control Systems 196 Homeostasis May Be Maintained by Local or Long-Distance Pathways 198 Response Loops Begin with a Stimulus and End with a Response 201 Setpoints Can Be Varied 202 Feedback Loops Modulate the Response Loop 202 Feedforward Control Allows the Body to Anticipate Change and Maintain Stability 204 Biological Rhythms Result from Changes in a Setpoint 204 Control Systems Vary in Their Speed and Specificity 205 Complex Reflex Control Pathways Have Several Integrating Centers 208 Chapter Summary 211 Questions 212 Answers 213



HOMEOSTASIS AND CONTROL 7 Introduction to the Endocrine System Running Problem: Graves Disease Hormones 216



Hormones Have Been Known Since Ancient Times 216 Clinical Focus: The Discovery of Insulin 217 What Makes a Chemical a Hormone? 217 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors 220 Hormone Action Must Be Terminated 220 The Classification of Hormones 221 Most Hormones Are Peptides or Proteins



Steroid Hormones Are Derived from Cholesterol 222 Some Hormones Are Derived from Single Amino Acids 224 Control of Hormone Release 226 Hormones Can Be Classified by Their Reflex Pathways 226 The Endocrine Cell Is the Sensor in the Simplest Endocrine Reflexes 226 Many Endocrine Reflexes Involve the Nervous System 228 Neurohormones Are Secreted into the Blood by Neurons 228 The Pituitary Gland Is Actually Two Fused Glands 228 The Posterior Pituitary Stores and Releases Two Neurohormones 228 The Anterior Pituitary Secretes Six Hormones Feedback Loops Are Different in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Pathway 230 A Portal System Delivers Hormones from Hypothalamus to Anterior Pituitary 232 Anterior Pituitary Hormones Control Growth, Metabolism, and Reproduction 233 Hormone Interactions 233 In Synergism, the Effect of Interacting Hormones Is More Than Additive 234 A Permissive Hormone Allows Another Hormone to Exert Its Full Effect 234 Antagonistic Hormones Have Opposing Effects 235 Endocrine Pathologies 235 Hypersecretion Exaggerates a Hormone s Effects 235 Hyposecretion Diminishes or Eliminates a Hormone s Effects 236 Receptor or Second Messenger Problems Cause Abnormal Tissue Responsiveness 236 Diagnosis of Endocrine Pathologies Depends on the Complexity of the Reflex 236 Hormone Evolution 238 Focus on the Pineal Gland Chapter Summary 241 Questions 243 Answers 245


8 Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties


Running Problem: Mysterious Paralysis 247 Organization of the Nervous System 247




Cells of the Nervous System

Multiple Receptor Types Amplify the Effects of Neurotransmitters 279 Not All Postsynaptic Responses Are Rapid and of Short Duration 280 Neurotransmitter Activity Is Rapidly Terminated 281 Integration of Neural Information Transfer


Neurons Are Excitable Cells That Generate and Carry Electrical Signals 249 Glial Cells Provide Chemical and Physical Support for Neurons 253 Adults Have Neural Stem Cells 253 Electrical Signals in Neurons 255

Neural Pathways May Involve Many Neurons Simultaneously 283 Synaptic Activity Can Also Be Modulated at the Axon Terminal 283 Long-Term Potentiation Alters Synaptic Communication 285 Disorders of Synaptic Transmission Are Responsible for Many Diseases 287 Development of the Nervous System Depends on Chemical Signals 287 When Neurons Are Injured, Segments Separated from the Cell Body Die 288 Chapter Summary 290 Questions 292 Answers 294

The Nernst Equation Predicts Membrane Potential for a Single Ion 256 The GHK Equation Predicts Membrane Potential Using Multiple Ions 256 Ion Movement Across the Cell Membrane Creates Electrical Signals 257 Gated Channels Control the Ion Permeability of the Neuron 257 Clinical Focus: Channelopathies 258 Changes in Channel Permeability Create Electrical Signals 258 Graded Potentials Reflect the Strength of the Stimulus That Initiates Them 258 Action Potentials Travel Long Distances Without Losing Strength 261 Na* and K* Move Across the Membrane During Action Potentials 262 * Na Channels in the Axon Have Two Gates Action Potentials Will Not Fire During the Absolute Refractory Period 264 Stimulus Intensity Is Coded by the Frequency of Action Potentials 265 One Action Potential Does Not Alter Ion Concentration Gradients 265 Action Potentials Are Conducted from the Trigger Zone to the Axon Terminal 266 Larger Neurons Conduct Action Potentials Faster 270 Conduction Is Faster in Myelinated Axons Biotechnology: Mutant Mouse Models Electrical Activity Can Be Altered by a Variety of Chemicals 272 Cell-to-Cell Communication in the Nervous System 273


9 The Central Nervous System 263


Running Problem: Infantile Spasms 297 Emergent Properties of Neural Networks 297 Evolution of Nervous Systems


Biotechnology: Tracing Neurons in a Network 299 Anatomy of the Central Nervous System 299 The CNS Develops from a Hollow Tube The CNS Is Divided into Gray Matter and White Matter 301



Bone and Connective Tissue Support the CNS 301 The Brain Floats in Cerebrospinal Fluid 303 The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain from Harmful Substances in the Blood 303 Neural Tissue Has Special Metabolic Requirements 305

Information Passes from Cell to Cell at the Synapse 273 Calcium Is the Signal for Neurotransmitter Release at the Synapse 274 Neurocrines Convey Information from Neurons to Other Cells 275 The Nervous System Secretes a Variety of Neurocrines 275 Biotechnology: Of Snakes, Snails, Spiders, and Sushi 277 Clinical Focus: Myasthenia Gravis



Clinical Focus: Hypoglycemia and the Brain The Spinal Cord 307 The Brain


The Brain Stem Is the Transition Between Spinal Cord and Midbrain 309 The Brain Stem Consists of Medulla, Pons, and Midbrain 310 The Cerebellum Coordinates Movement 311 The Diencephalon Contains the Centers for Homeostasis 311 The Cerebrum Is the Site of Higher Brain Functions 312




The Cerebrum Has Distinct Regions of Gray Matter and White Matter 312 Brain Function 313

Touch Receptors Respond to Many Different Stimuli 344 Temperature Receptors Are Free Nerve Endings 346 Nociceptors Initiate Protective Responses 346 Pain and Itching Are Mediated by Nociceptors 346 Chemoreception: Smell and Taste 349

The Cerebral Cortex Is Organized into Functional Areas 314 Sensory Information Is Integrated in the Spinal Cord and Brain 314 Sensory Information Is Processed into Perception 315 The Motor System Governs Output from the CNS 316 The Behavioral State System Modulates Motor Output 317 The Reticular Activating System Influences States of Arousal 318 Why Do We Sleep? 319 Emerging Concepts: Adenosine and That Java Jolt 320 Physiological Functions Exhibit Circadian Rhythms 320 Emotion and Motivation Involve Complex Neural Pathways 321 Moods Are Long-Lasting Emotional States Learning and Memory Change Synaptic Connections in the Brain 322 Learning Is the Acquisition of Knowledge Memory Is the Ability to Retain and Recall Information 323 Language Is the Most Elaborate Cognitive Behavior 325 Personality Is a Combination of Experience and Inheritance 326 Chapter Summary 328 Questions 330 Answers 331

10 Sensory Physiology

Clinical Focus: Natural Painkillers 349 Olfaction Is One of the Oldest Senses 349 Taste Is a Combination of Five Basic Sensations Taste Transduction Uses Receptors and Channels The Ear: Hearing 353

Emerging Concepts: Changing Taste 355 Hearing Is Our Perception of Sound 355 Sound Transduction Is a Multistep Process 356 The Cochlea Is Filled with Fluid 357 Sounds Are Processed First in the Cochlea 358 Auditory Pathways Project to the Auditory Cortex 361 Hearing Loss May Result from Mechanical or Neural Damage 361




The Vestibular Apparatus Provides Information About Movement and Position 363 The Semicircular Canals Sense Rotational Acceleration 363 The Otolith Organs Sense Linear Acceleration and Head Position 363 Equilibrium Pathways Project Primarily to the Cerebellum 363 The Eye and Vision 365 366

Clinical Focus: Glaucoma 366 Light Enters the Eye Through the Pupil The Lens Focuses Light on the Retina Phototransduction Occurs at the Retina

334 334

Receptors Are Sensitive to Particular Forms of Energy 335 Sensory Transduction Converts Stimuli into Graded Potentials 336 A Sensory Neuron Has a Receptive Field 336 The CNS Integrates Sensory Information 338 Coding and Processing Distinguish Stimulus Properties 339 Somatic Senses 342 Pathways for Somatic Perception Project to the Somatosensory Cortex and Cerebellum

Biotechnology: Cochlear Implants The Ear: Equilibrium 362

The Skull Protects the Eye


Running Problem: Ménière s Disease General Properties of Sensory Systems

352 353


367 368 371

Emerging Concepts: Melanopsin 372 Photoreceptors Transduce Light into Electrical Signals 372 Signal Processing Begins in the Retina 376 Chapter Summary 379 Questions 381 Answers 383

11 Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control


Running Problem: A Powerful Addiction The Autonomic Division 386 Autonomic Reflexes Are Important for Homeostasis 387




Antagonistic Control Is a Hallmark of the Autonomic Division 388 Autonomic Pathways Have Two Efferent Neurons in Series 388 Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches Exit the Spinal Cord in Different Regions 389 The Autonomic Nervous System Uses a Variety of Chemical Signals 389 Autonomic Pathways Control Smooth and Cardiac Muscle and Glands 391 Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Synthesized in the Axon 392 Most Sympathetic Pathways Secrete Norepinephrine onto Adrenergic Receptors 392 The Adrenal Medulla Secretes Catecholamines 394 Parasympathetic Pathways Secrete Acetylcholine onto Muscarinic Receptors 395 Autonomic Agonists and Antagonists Are Important Tools in Research and Medicine 395 Primary Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Are Relatively Uncommon 396 Summary of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches 396 Clinical Focus: Autonomic Neuropathy The Somatic Motor Division 396


A Somatic Motor Pathway Consists of One Neuron 398 The Neuromuscular Junction Contains Nicotinic Receptors 399 Chapter Summary 402 Questions 403 Answers 404

12 Muscles


Running Problem: Periodic Paralysis Skeletal Muscle 408


Skeletal Muscles Are Composed of Muscle Fibers 408 Myofibrils Are the Contractile Structures of a Muscle Fiber 411 Muscle Contraction Creates Force 413 Actin and Myosin Slide Past Each Other During Contraction 413 Myosin Crossbridges Move Actin Filaments 414 Calcium Signals Initiate Contraction 415 Myosin Heads Step Along Actin Filaments 415 Biotechnology: The In Vitro Motility Assay Acetylcholine Initiates Excitation-Contraction Coupling 417 Skeletal Muscle Contraction Requires a Steady Supply of ATP 420


Fatigue Has Multiple Causes 421 Skeletal Muscle Is Classified by Speed and Resistance to Fatigue 422 Tension Developed by Individual Muscle Fibers Is a Function of Fiber Length 423 Force of Contraction Increases with Summation of Muscle Twitches 425 A Motor Unit Is One Somatic Motor Neuron and the Muscle Fibers It Innervates 426 Contraction Force Depends on the Types and Numbers of Motor Units 426 Mechanics of Body Movement 427 Isotonic Contractions Move Loads; Isometric Contractions Create Force Without Movement 427 Bones and Muscles Around Joints Form Levers and Fulcrums 428 Muscle Disorders Have Multiple Causes 431 Smooth Muscle 432 Smooth Muscles Are Much Smaller than Skeletal Muscle Fiber 433 Smooth Muscle Has Longer Actin and Myosin Filaments 434 Smooth Muscle Is Not Arranged in Sarcomeres Protein Phosphorylation Plays a Key Role in Smooth Muscle Contraction 435 Relaxation in Smooth Muscle Has Several Steps 436 Calcium Entry Is the Signal for Smooth Muscle Contraction 436 Some Smooth Muscles Have Unstable Membrane Potentials 438 Smooth Muscle Activity Is Regulated by Chemical Signals 438 Cardiac Muscle 439 Chapter Summary Questions 443 Answers 444



13 Integrative Physiology 1:

Control of Body Movement

Running Problem: Tetanus Neural Reflexes 447

446 447

Neural Reflex Pathways Can Be Classified in Different Ways 447 Autonomic Reflexes 449 Skeletal Muscle Reflexes


Muscle Spindles Respond to Muscle Stretch Clinical Focus: Reflexes and Muscle Tone Golgi Tendon Organs Respond to Muscle Tension 453

451 451


Stretch Reflexes and Reciprocal Inhibition Control Movement Around a Joint 454 Flexion Reflexes Pull Limbs Away from Painful Stimuli 455 The Integrated Control of Body Movement 457 Movement Can Be Classified as Reflex, Voluntary, or Rhythmic 457 The CNS Integrates Movement 458 Symptoms of Parkinson s Disease Reflect the Functions of the Basal Ganglia 462 Emerging Concepts: Visualization Techniques in Sports 462 Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles Chapter Summary Questions 465 Answers 466





INTEGRATION OF FUNCTION 14 Cardiovascular Physiology


Running Problem: Myocardial Infarction Overview of the Cardiovascular System

468 468

The Cardiovascular System Transports Materials Throughout the Body 469 The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood 469 Pressure, Volume, Flow, and Resistance


Electrical Conduction in the Heart Coordinates Contraction 487 Clinical Focus: Fibrillation 488 Pacemakers Set the Heart Rate 489 The Electrocardiogram Reflects Electrical Activity 491 The Heart Contracts and Relaxes During a Cardiac Cycle 494 Clinical Focus: Gallops, Clicks, and Murmurs 497 Pressure-Volume Curves Represent One Cardiac Cycle 497 Stroke Volume Is the Volume of Blood Pumped Per Contraction 498 Cardiac Output Is a Measure of Cardiac Performance 498 Heart Rate Is Modulated by Autonomic Neurons and Catecholamines 500 Multiple Factors Influence Stroke Volume 501 Contractility Is Controlled by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems 502 Emerging Concepts: Stem Cells for Heart Disease 502 EDV and Arterial Blood Pressure Determine Afterload 504 Chapter Summary 506 Questions 508 Answers 510

15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood



The Pressure of Fluid in Motion Decreases over Distance 472 Pressure Changes in Liquids Without a Change in Volume 472 Blood Flows from Higher Pressure to Lower Pressure 473 Resistance Opposes Flow 473 Velocity Depends on the Flow Rate and the Cross-Sectional Area 475 Cardiac Muscle and the Heart 478 The Heart Has Four Chambers 478 Heart Valves Ensure One-Way Flow in the Heart 479 Cardiac Muscle Cells Contract Without Innervation 481 Calcium Entry Is a Feature of Cardiac EC Coupling 482 Cardiac Muscle Contraction Can Be Graded Myocardial Action Potentials Vary 483 Autonomic Neurotransmitters Modulate Heart Rate 486

The Heart as a Pump



Running Problem: Essential Hypertension The Blood Vessels 514


Blood Vessels Contain Vascular Smooth Muscle 514 Arteries and Arterioles Carry Blood Away from the Heart 514 Exchange Takes Place in the Capillaries 515 Blood Flow Converges in the Venules and Veins 515 Angiogenesis Creates New Blood Vessels 516 Blood Pressure 516


Blood Pressure Is Highest in Arteries and Lowest in Veins 516 Arterial Blood Pressure Reflects the Driving Pressure for Blood Flow 517 Blood Pressure Is Estimated by Sphygmomanometry 518 Cardiac Output and Peripheral Resistance Determine Mean Arterial Pressure 519 Changes in Blood Volume Affect Blood Pressure 520



Resistance in the Arterioles


Red Blood Cells

Mature Red Blood Cells Lack a Nucleus Hemoglobin Synthesis Requires Iron

Clinical Focus: Shock 521 Myogenic Autoregulation Automatically Adjusts Blood Flow 523 Paracrines Alter Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction 523 The Sympathetic Branch Controls Most Vascular Smooth Muscle 524 Distribution of Blood to the Tissues 526 Exchange at the Capillaries


The Baroreceptor Reflex Controls Blood Pressure 532 Orthostatic Hypotension Triggers the Baroreceptor Reflex 535 Cardiovascular Disease 535 Clinical Focus: Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease 537 Atherosclerosis Is an Inflammatory Process Hypertension Represents a Failure of Homeostasis 538

Running Problem: Emphysema The Respiratory System 570 535


560 561

568 569

Bones and Muscles of the Thorax Surround the Lungs 570 Pleural Sacs Enclose the Lungs 570 Airways Connect Lungs to the External Environment 571 The Airways Warm, Humidify, and Filter Inspired Air 571 Alveoli Are the Site of Gas Exchange 574 Pulmonary Circulation Is High-Flow, Low-Pressure 575 Clinical Focus: Congestive Heart Failure Gas Laws 576


Running Problem: Blood Doping in Athletes Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood


Platelets Are Small Fragments of Cells 559 Hemostasis Prevents Blood Loss from Damaged Vessels 559 Platelet Activation Begins the Clotting Process Coagulation Converts a Platelet Plug into a Clot Anticoagulants Prevent Coagulation 563

17 Mechanics of Breathing

Emerging Concepts: Inflammatory Markers for Cardiovascular Disease 539 Chapter Summary 541 Questions 542 Answers 544

16 Blood


Emerging Concepts: Clot Busters and Antiplatelet Agents 564 Chapter Summary 566 Questions 566 Answers 567

Edema Results from Alterations in Capillary Exchange 531 Regulation of Blood Pressure 532

Risk Factors Include Smoking and Obesity

553 555

Clinical Focus: Hemoglobin and Hyperglycemia RBCs Live About Four Months 556 RBC Disorders Decrease Oxygen Transport Platelets and Coagulation 558


Velocity of Blood Flow Is in the Capillaries Most Capillary Exchange Takes Place by Diffusion and Transcytosis 528 Capillary Filtration and Absorption Take Place by Bulk Flow 528 The Lymphatic System 530


547 547

Plasma Is Extracellular Matrix 547 Cellular Elements Include RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets 549 Blood Cell Production 549 Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow 550 Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Cytokines 551 Colony-Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis 551 Thrombopoietin Regulates Platelet Production 552 Erythropoietin Regulates RBC Production 552

Air Is a Mixture of Gases 576 Gases Move Down Pressure Gradients Boyle s Law Describes Pressure-Volume Relationships 577 Ventilation 578



Lung Volumes Change During Ventilation 578 During Ventilation, Air Flows Because of Pressure Gradients 579 Inspiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Decreases 580 Expiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Increases 582 Intrapleural Pressure Changes During Ventilation 582 Lung Compliance and Elastance May Change in Disease States 584



Surfactant Decreases the Work of Breathing Airway Diameter Determines Airway Resistance 586 Rate and Depth of Breathing Determine the Efficiency of Breathing 587 Gas Composition in the Alveoli Varies Little During Normal Breathing 589 Ventilation and Alveolar Blood Flow Are Matched 589 Auscultation and Spirometry Assess Pulmonary Function 591 Chapter Summary 592 Questions 593 Answers 595

18 Gas Exchange and Transport Running Problem: High Altitude Diffusion and Solubility of Gases


Clinical Focus: Urinary Tract Infections The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney 624 Overview of Kidney Function 625

The Renal Corpuscle Contains Filtration Barriers

Reabsorption May Be Active or Passive 602

Hemoglobin Transports Most Oxygen to the Tissues 603 Emerging Concepts: Blood Substitutes 604 Hemoglobin Binds to Oxygen 604 Oxygen Binding Obeys the Law of Mass Action 605 PO2 Determines Oxygen-Hb Binding 605 Oxygen Binding Is Expressed as a Percentage 606 Several Factors Affect Oxygen-Hb Binding 607 Carbon Dioxide Is Transported in Three Ways 609 Regulation of Ventilation 612


Running Problem: Gout Functions of the Kidney

623 623


Emerging Concepts: Diabetes: Diabetic Nephropathy 631 Capillary Pressure Causes Filtration 631 GFR Is Relatively Constant 631 GFR Is Subject to Autoregulation 633 Hormones and Autonomic Neurons Also Influence GFR 634 Reabsorption 635

Dissolved Gas Depends on Pressure, Solubility, and Temperature 599 Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues 599

19 The Kidneys


Kidneys Filter, Reabsorb, and Secrete 625 The Nephron Modifies Fluid Volume and Osmolarity 628 Filtration 629

598 598

Neurons in the Medulla Control Breathing Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, and pH Influence Ventilation 614 Protective Reflexes Guard the Lungs 617 Higher Brain Centers Affect Patterns of Ventilation 617 Chapter Summary 618 Questions 619 Answers 621


The Urinary System Consists of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra 624


Biotechnology: The Pulse Oximeter 601 Lower Alveolar PO2 Decreases Oxygen Uptake Alveolar Membrane Changes Alter Gas Exchange 603 Gas Transport in the Blood 603

Anatomy of the Urinary System



Biotechnology: Artificial Kidneys 637 Renal Transport Can Reach Saturation 637 Peritubular Capillary Pressures Favor Reabsorption 639 Secretion 639 Competition Decreases Penicillin Secretion Excretion 640 Clearance Is a Noninvasive Way to Measure GFR 640 Clearance Helps Us Determine Renal Handling Micturition 643 Chapter Summary Questions 647 Answers 648


20 Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance


Running Problem: Hyponatremia Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis ECF Osmolarity Affects Cell Volume Multiple Systems Integrate Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 651 Water Balance 652

651 651 651

Daily Water Intake and Excretion Are Balanced 653 The Kidneys Conserve Water 653 The Renal Medulla Creates Concentrated Urine 654





Vasopressin Controls Water Reabsorption Clinical Focus Diabetes: Osmotic Diuresis Blood Volume and Osmolarity Activate Osmoreceptors 657 The Loop of Henle Is a Countercurrent Multiplier 659 Sodium Balance and ECF Volume 661

655 655




Running Problem: Peptic Ulcers Digestive Function and Processes

687 687


The Digestive System Secretes Ions and Water Digestive Enzymes Are Secreted into the Lumen Specialized Cells Secrete Mucus 697 Saliva Is an Exocrine Secretion 697 The Liver Secretes Bile 699 Regulation of GI Function 699 668 668


pH Changes Can Denature Proteins 672 Acids and Bases in the Body Come from Many Sources 673 pH Homeostasis Depends on Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys 674 Buffer Systems Include Proteins, Phosphate Ions, and HCO3+ 675 Ventilation Can Compensate for pH Disturbances 675 Kidneys Use Ammonia and Phosphate Buffers 676 * The Proximal Tubule Excretes H and Reabsorbs HCO3+ 676 The Distal Nephron Controls Acid Excretion 678 Acid-Base Disturbances May Be Respiratory or Metabolic 679 Chapter Summary 682 Questions 683 Answers 684


The Digestive System Is a Tube 689 The GI Tract Wall Has Four Layers 689 Motility 693

Clinical Focus: Diabetes: Delayed Gastric Emptying 694 Secretion 695

Behavioral Mechanisms in Salt and Water Balance 667

Osmolarity and Volume Can Change Independently 668 Dehydration Triggers Homeostatic Responses Acid-Base Balance 672


GI Smooth Muscle Contracts Spontaneously GI Smooth Muscle Exhibits Different Patterns of Contraction 694

Aldosterone Controls Sodium Balance 662 Low Blood Pressure Stimulates Aldosterone Secretion 663 ANG II Has Many Effects 664 * ANP Promotes Na and Water Excretion 665 Potassium Balance 666

Drinking Replaces Fluid Loss 667 * Low Na Stimulates Salt Appetite 667 Avoidance Behaviors Help Prevent Dehydration Integrated Control of Volume and Osmolarity

Anatomy of the Digestive System

695 696

The Enteric Nervous System Can Act Independently 700 Emerging Concepts: Taste Receptors in the Gut 701 GI Peptides Include Hormones, Neuropeptides, and Cytokines 701 Digestion and Absorption 703 Carbohydrates Are Absorbed as Monosaccharides 703 Proteins Are Digested into Small Peptides and Amino Acids 704 Some Larger Peptides Can Be Absorbed Intact Bile Salts Facilitate Fat Digestion 705 Nucleic Acids Are Digested into Bases and Monosaccharides 706 The Intestine Absorbs Vitamins and Minerals The Intestine Absorbs Ions and Water 708 The Cephalic Phase 708



Chemical and Mechanical Digestion Begins in the Mouth 708 Swallowing Moves Food from Mouth to Stomach 709 The Gastric Phase 710 The Stomach Stores Food 711 The Stomach Secretes Acid and Enzymes The Stomach Balances Digestion and Protection 713 The Intestinal Phase 713


Bicarbonate Neutralizes Gastric Acid 714 Most Fluid Is Absorbed in the Small Intestine Most Digestion Occurs in the Small Intestine 715 Clinical Focus: Lactose Intolerance 716 The Large Intestine Concentrates Waste 716




Diarrhea Can Cause Dehydration Immune Functions of the GI Tract M Cells Sample Gut Contents Vomiting Is a Protective Reflex Chapter Summary 720 Questions 721 Answers 723

717 718

Chapter Summary Questions 754 Answers 755

718 718

22 Metabolism and Energy Balance Running Problem: Eating Disorders Appetite and Satiety 725

23 Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism

Ingested Energy May Be Used or Stored Hormones Alter Enzyme Activity to Control Metabolism 731 Anabolic Metabolism Dominates in the Fed State 732 Plasma Cholesterol Predicts Coronary Heart Disease 734 Catabolic Metabolism Dominates in the Fasted State 735


Running Problem: Hyperparathyroidism Review of Endocrine Principles 758 724 725

Biotechnology: Novel Approaches for Discovering Peptides 726 Energy Balance 727 Energy Input Equals Energy Output Energy Use Is Reflected by Oxygen Consumption 727 Energy Is Stored in Fat and Glycogen Metabolism 729



729 730

Clinical Focus: Ketogenic Diets 736 Homeostatic Control of Metabolism 736 The Pancreas Secretes Insulin and Glucagon 736 The Insulin-to-Glucagon Ratio Regulates Metabolism 737 Insulin Is the Dominant Hormone of the Fed State 738 Insulin Promotes Anabolism 739 Glucagon Is Dominant in the Fasted State 741 Diabetes Mellitus Is a Family of Diseases 742 Type 1 Diabetics Are Prone to Ketoacidosis 743 Type 2 Diabetics Often Have Elevated Insulin Levels 745 Metabolic Syndrome Links Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease 746 Regulation of Body Temperature 747 Body Temperature Balances Heat Production, Gain, and Loss 748 Body Temperature Is Homeostatically Regulated 749 Movement and Metabolism Produce Heat 750 The Body s Thermostat Can Be Reset 751

Adrenal Glucocorticoids



The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Steroid Hormones 758 Cortisol Secretion Is Controlled by ACTH 760 Cortisol Is Essential for Life 761 Cortisol Is a Useful Therapeutic Drug 762 Cortisol Pathologies Result from Too Much or Too Little Hormone 762 CRH and ACTH Have Additional Physiological Functions 763 Emerging Concepts: Melanocortins and the Agouti Mouse 763 Thyroid Hormones 764 Thyroid Hormones Contain Iodine 764 Thyroid Hormones Affect Quality of Life TSH Controls the Thyroid Gland 767 Growth Hormone 768 Growth Hormone Is Anabolic



Clinical Focus: New Growth Charts Growth Hormone Is Essential for Normal Growth 770 Genetically Engineered hGH Raises Ethical Questions 770 Tissue and Bone Growth 771


Tissue Growth Requires Hormones and Paracrines 771 Bone Growth Requires Adequate Dietary Calcium 771 Calcium Balance 772 Plasma Calcium Is Closely Regulated 773 Three Hormones Control Calcium Balance 774 Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis Are Linked 776 Osteoporosis Is a Disease of Bone Loss 777 Chapter Summary 778 Questions 779 Answers 780

24 The Immune System


Running Problem: Treatment for AIDS Overview 783




Pathogens of the Human Body


Ventilatory Responses to Exercise

Bacteria and Viruses Require Different Defense Mechanisms 784 Viruses Can Replicate Only Inside Host Cells The Immune Response 785 Anatomy of the Immune System

Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise 785


Lymphoid Tissues Are Everywhere 787 Leukocytes Mediate Immunity 788 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Responses

Lymphocytes Mediate the Acquired Immune Response 794 B Lymphocytes Become Plasma Cells and Memory Cells 795 Antibodies Are Proteins Secreted by Plasma Cells 795 T Lymphocytes Use Contact-Dependent Signaling 798 Immune Response Pathways 800


Hormones Regulate Metabolism During Exercise 816 Oxygen Consumption Is Related to Exercise Intensity 816 Several Factors Limit Exercise 817



Exercise Lowers the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease 822 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus May Improve with Exercise 822 Stress and the Immune System May Be Influenced by Exercise 823 Chapter Summary 825 Questions 826 Answers 827 828


Sex Chromosomes Determine Genetic Sex



Exercise and Health

Running Problem: Infertility Sex Determination 829


25 Integrative Physiology III : Exercise Running Problem: Heat Stroke Metabolism and Exercise 814

Cardiac Output Increases During Exercise 819 Muscle Blood Flow Increases During Exercise 819 Blood Pressure Rises Slightly During Exercise 819 The Baroreceptor Reflex Adjusts to Exercise 820 Feedforward Responses to Exercise 821

26 Reproduction and Development

Bacterial Invasion Causes Inflammation 800 Viral Infections Require Intracellular Defense 800 Specific Antigens Trigger Allergic Responses 804 MHC Proteins Allow Recognition of Foreign Tissue 804 The Immune System Must Recognize Self 805

Stress Alters Immune System Function Modern Medicine Includes Mind-Body Therapeutics 808 Chapter Summary 809 Questions 811 Answers 812


Temperature Regulation During Exercise 790

Barriers Are the Body s First Line of Defense 790 Phagocytes Ingest Foreign Material 791 NK Cells Kill Infected and Tumor Cells 792 Cytokines Create the Inflammatory Response 792 Acquired Immunity: Antigen-Specific Responses 794

Biotechnology: Engineered Antibodies Immune Surveillance Removes Abnormal Cells 806 Nuero-Endocrine-Immune Reactions



Clinical Focus: X-Linked Inherited Disorders Sexual Differentiation Occurs Early in Development 831 Basic Patterns of Reproduction 833 Gametogenesis Begins in Utero Clinical Focus: Determining Sex The Brain Directs Reproduction Environmental Factors Influence Reproduction 838 Male Reproduction 838

830 830

833 834 836

Testes Produce Sperm and Hormones 839 Spermatogenesis Requires Gonadotropins and Testosterone 842 Male Accessory Glands Contribute Secretions to Semen 843 Androgens Influence Secondary Sex Characteristics 843 Female Reproduction 844 Females Have Ovaries and a Uterus 844 The Ovary Produces Eggs and Hormones A Menstrual Cycle Lasts About One Month Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle Is Complex 845 Emerging Concepts: AMH and Ovarian Function 850

844 844


Hormones Influence Female Secondary Sex Characteristics 851 Procreation 851 The Human Sexual Response Has Four Phases 852 The Male Sex Act Includes Erection and Ejaculation 852 Sexual Dysfunction Affects Males and Females 852 Contraceptives Are Designed to Prevent Pregnancy 853 Infertility Is the Inability to Conceive Pregnancy and Parturition 855

Puberty Marks the Beginning of the Reproductive Years 862 Menopause and Andropause Are a Consequence of Aging 863 Chapter Summary 863 Questions 865 Answers 866

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions



Pregnancy Requires Capacitation 855 The Developing Embryo Implants in the Endometrium 856 The Placenta Secretes Hormones During Pregnancy 858 Pregnancy Ends with Labor and Delivery 858 The Mammary Glands Secrete Milk During Lactation 860 Prolactin Has Other Physiological Roles 861 Growth and Aging 861

Appendix B Physics and Math


Appendix C Genetics


Appendix D Anatomical Positions of the Body

Glossary/Index Credits





Owner s Manual: How to Use This Book WELCOME TO HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY! As you begin your study of the human body, you should be prepared to make maximum use of the resources available to you, including your instructor, the library, the Internet, and your textbook. One of my goals in this book is to provide you not only with information about how the human body functions but also with tips for studying and problem solving. Many of these study aids have been developed with the input of my students, so I think you may find them particularly helpful. On the following pages, I have put together a brief tour of the special features of the book, especially those that you may not have encountered previously in textbooks. Please take a few minutes to read about them so that you can make optimum use of the book as you study. One of your tasks as you study will be to construct for yourself a global view of the body, its systems, and the many processes that keep the systems working. This big picture is what physiologists call the integration of systems, and it is a key theme in the book. In order to integrate information, however, you must do more than simply memorize it. You need to truly understand it and be able to use it to solve problems that you have never encountered before. If you are headed for a career in the health professions, you will do this in the clinics. If you are headed for a career in biology, you will solve problems in the laboratory, field, or classroom. Analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information are skills you need to develop while you are in school, and I hope that the features of this book will help you with this goal. In this edition we have continued to update and focus on basic themes and concepts of physiology. Chapter 1 introduces you to the key concepts in physiology that you encounter repeatedly as you study different organ systems. It also includes several special features: one on mapping, a useful study skill that is also used for decisionmaking in the clinics; one on constructing and interpreting graphs, and a third on how to search and read scientific literature.


We have also retained the four approaches to learning physiology that proved so popular since this book was first published in 1998. 1. Cellular and Molecular Physiology Most physiological research today is being done at the cellular and molecular level, and there have been many exciting developments in molecular medicine and physiology in the ten years since the first edition. For example, now scientists have discovered that our gut senses the composition of a meal using the same receptor proteins that our tongues use to tell us what we re eating. Look for similar links between molecular biology, physiology, and medicine throughout the book. 2. Physiology as a Dynamic Field Physiology is a dynamic discipline, with numerous unanswered questions that merit further investigation and research. Many of the facts presented in this text are really only our current theories, so you should be prepared to change your mental models as new information emerges from scientific research. 3. An Emphasis on Integration The organ systems of the body do not work in isolation, although we study them one at a time. To emphasize the integrative nature of physiology, three chapters (Chapters 13, 20, and 25) focus on how the physiological processes of multiple organ systems coordinate with each other, especially when homeostasis is challenged. 4. A Focus on Problem Solving One of the most valuable life skills students should acquire is the ability to think critically and use information to solve problems. As you study physiology, you should be prepared to practice these skills. You will find a number of features in this book, such as the Concept Checks and Figure and Graph Questions, that are designed to challenge your critical thinking and analysis skills. In each chapter, read the Running Problems as you work through the text and see if you can apply what you re reading to the clinical scenario described in the problem.

Owner s Manual: How to Use This Book

Also, be sure to look at the back of the text, where we have combined indeand glossary to save time when you are looking up unfamiliar words. The appendices have the answers to the end-of-chapter questions, as well as reviews of physics, logarithms, and basic genetics. The back end papers include a periodic table of the elements, diagrams of anatomical positions of the body, and tables with conversions and normal values of blood components. Take a few minutes to look at all these features so that you can make optimum use of them.


It is my hope that by reading this book, you will develop an integrated view of physiology that allows you to enter your chosen professions with respect for the complexity of the human body and a clear vision of the potential of physiological and biomedical research. May you learn to love physiology as I do. Good luck with your studies! Warmest regards, Dr. Dee (as my students call me) [email protected]

Engaging Art Helps You Visualize Physiological Processes and Concepts

New and Revised Art Most of the art has been revised using brighter colors and more realistic detail, supporting your awareness of the physical environment where physiological processes take place.

Reflex Pathways & Concept Maps organize physiological processes and details into a logical, consistent visual format. These figures use consistent colors and shapes to represent processes and will guide you to a better understanding of coordinated physiological function. New interactive reflex pathways are available for online study on the companion website.


Focus On

figures highlight the anatomy and physiology of organs that are often overlooked in physiology texts, including the skin, the liver, and the pineal gland.

Anatomy Summaries provide succinct visual overviews of a physiological system from a macro to micro perspective. Whether learning the anatomy for the first time or refreshing your memory, these summaries show you the essential features of each system in a single figure.


In-Text Tools Develop Your Critical Thinking Skills

Running Problems Each chapter begins with a relevant, reallife problem involving a disease or disorder that unfolds in segments on subsequent pages. Each segment s questions require you to apply information you have learned from reading the text. You can check your answers against the Problem Conclusion at the end of the chapter. A new Running Problem covering the human papillomavirus appears in this edition.

Figure and Graph Questions

promote analytical skills by encouraging you to interpret and apply information presented in the art and graphs. Answers to these questions appear at the end of each chapter.

Concept Check Questions, placed at intervals throughout the chapters, develop your understanding before continuing to the next topic. Many questions have been revised to better develop your critical thinking skills. You can check your answers using the key at the end of each chapter. xxiv

New Study Tools Help You Grasp the Material

The End-of-Chapter, 4-Level Learning System helps build your confidence and understanding by progressing from factual questions to conceptual problems to analytical exercises to quantitative questions. Answers to Level 1 and 2 questions are found in Appendix A at the back of the book; answers to Level 3 and 4 questions are found on the book companion website.

Concept Links are encircled

chain-links that connect concepts to topics discussed earlier in the text. Concept Links will help you find material that you may have forgotten or that may be helpful for understanding new information.

Figure Reference Locators function as place markers to make it easier to connect illustrations with the running narrative that describes the figure.

Background Basics, found on the chapter opening page, reviews topics you will need to master for understanding the material that follows. The page references will save valuable study time.


Clear Explanations Relate Physiology to Everyday Life

Analogies help you understand difficult concepts Human physiology includes amazing and complex processes that occur on such a microscopic level, they are difficult to conceptualize. To help you understand how these processes operate, the text uses clear and helpful analogies.

Active Learning examples help you see for yourself Mini-experiments you can perform nearly anywhere are incorporated into the text to give you a concrete understanding of how processes work. (Additional examples are available via the Instructor s Resource Guide.)


Focus Boxes Highlight Physiology as a Dynamic Field of Research and Application Three kinds of focus boxes were developed with the goal of helping you understand the role of physiology in science and medicine today.


boxes discuss physiology related applications and laboratory techniques from the fast-moving world of biotechnology.

Clinical Focus boxes concentrate on clinical applications and pathologies, helping you understand how to apply your learning in a clinical setting. Revised content includes information on gustation. An additional feature to this box is a DIABETES THEME, which is used to illustrate the application of physiology to a clinical situation. Because diabetes has such a widespread effect on the body, it makes a perfect example of integrated physiology.

Emerging Concepts boxes describe upcoming advances in physiological research. Revised content includes information on transporter gene families, and anti-Müllerian hormone and polycystic ovary syndrome.


Unparalleled Student Supplements Make Learning Fun The Physiology Place has been updated to include the new A&P Flix animations in 3D that bring difficult-tounderstand physiology concepts to life (see following page for details). Also on the website are new Interactive Concept Maps, chapter guides, chapter quizzes, and web links for every chapter. Access to Get Ready for A&P, an invaluable aid for preparing to study physiology, is included. Online Study Tools include Interactive Case Studies, Flashcards, Answers to Level 3 and 4 endof-chapter questions, a Glossary, Muscle and Bone Review, IP-10, PhysioEx 8.0, and an Histology Atlas.

Interactive Physiology® 10-System Suite provides an audio/visual presentation of complex topics that you can study from as often as you need. IP-10 features narrated, full-color animated tutorials that thoroughly demonstrate difficult physiology concepts, many of which occur at the cellular and molecular level. Extensive interactive quizzes and games reinforce the material. A copy of IP10 is automatically included with every new copy of the text and an online version is available via the website.

Student Workbook, co-written by Dee PhysioEx 8.0

is an easy-to-use laboratory simulation program consisting of 11 exercises containing 79 activities for you to use to prepare and practice for your physiology lab. PhysioEx 8.0 allows you to repeat labs as often as you like, perform experiments without harming live animals, and conduct experiments that may be difficult to perform in real life due to time, cost, or safety concerns. Access to PhysioEx is included via the Physiology Place.


Silverthorn, is your personal tutor, assisting you with your preparation for lecture, helping you go over your lecture notes and reinforcing the material you have learned in class. The Student Workbook guides you through the complex field of physiology, providing you with a list of Learning Objectives for each chapter; Teach Yourself the Basics, a series of study questions; Talk the Talk vocabulary lists; Quantitative Physiology, posing quantitative problems with a guide through the solution process; Practice Makes Perfect questions that cover chapter material over a range of skill levels; and Beyond the Pages additional references, background information, and chapter-related activities.

Everything You Need to Teach Your Course Your Way The Instructor Resource DVD Makes Creating Dynamic Lecture Presentations Easier Than Ever

Brand new, 3D-quality A&P Flix animations (including gradable quizzes and printable study sheets) provide carefully developed, stepby-step explanations with dramatic 3D representations of structures that show action and movement of processes, bringing difficult-toteach A&P concepts to life. Each animation will be available in PowerPoint with PRS-enabled quiz questions for use with personal response systems (clickers). The A&P Flix are also available on the Physiology Place for students to review on their own.

Instructor Resource DVD also includes: JPEG and PowerPoint® files of all illustrations, photos, and tables from the book. PowerPoint slides with all images (labeled and unlabeled) with select items in customizable Label Edit PowerPoint and Step Edit PowerPoint format; Lecture Outlines; Active Lecture Questions (PRSenabled); and Physiology Review Quiz Show Games and Quiz Show Game template. Microsoft Word® documents with Lecture Outlines, chapter test questions from the Test Bank, Instructor Resource Manual, IP Exercise Sheets, IP Exercise Sheets Answer Key, IP Assignment Sheets, and Quick Reference Guide. Podcast How-To Instructions to help you create dynamic content students can use to review lectures at their convenience, anywhere they happen to be.

Other Tools to Help You Teach CourseCompass, WebCT, and Blackboard courses offer pre-loaded content including testing and assessment plus assets from The Physiology Place website. These three course management systems are available as prebuilt, easy-to-use courses. Professors can use these powerful tools to create sophisticated web-based educational programs. IRM and Transparencies are also available. xxix

New to This Edition The fifth edition of Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach builds upon the thorough coverage of integrative and molecular physiology topics that have been the foundation of this book since its first publication. The text has been revised with extensive content updates and a substantial revision of the art has created clearer figures and diagrams, along with new figures to help clarify confusing concepts. Chapter-by-Chapter Content Updates Chapter 1 Added discussion of difference between model and theory New information on pharmacogenomics and evidence-based medicine Updated meta-analysis for glucosamine-chondroitin studies

Chapter 2 Updated Running Problem information on chromium picolinate

Chapter 3 New information on immunoliposomes Updated information on CAMs Introduced paracellular pathway Updated Running Problem on Pap tests to include updated collection method and role of HPV in abnormal pap tests and cervical cancer

Chapter 4 Updated information on RNA, protein synthesis, and protein sorting New information on microRNA and RNA interference Added enzyme classes to Table 4-4 Added mnemonic for oxidation-reduction reactions New figure on energy yields for glucose metabolism New Figure Question

Chapter 5 Introduced biological transport as a recurring theme New section on fluids and bulk flow New summary figure of membrane transporters Added nuclear pores complexes and gap junctions to discussion of membrane channels New section on paracellular and transcellular transport Updated discussion of pores in tight junctions Updated information on prognosis for patients with cystic fibrosis New Emerging Concepts box Transporter Gene Families, including ATP-binding cassette (ABC), transporter superfamily, and solute carrier (SLC) superfamily New Concept Check question


Chapter 6 Updated information on cytokines, cytokine receptors, and pathways, such as Janus kinase (JAK) New information on hydrogen sulfide as a gaseous signal molecule New information on sphingolipids as extracellular lipid signals Revised Fig. 6-29 on circadian rhythms using data from peerreviewed literature New Level 3 Problem Solving question

Chapter 7 Updated information about control of prolactin secretion Updated terminology for hypothalamic hormones Updated information on melatonin Added adiponectin and resistin, adipose tissue hormones Revised nomenclature for amino-acid derived hormones New Concept Check question on glucagon New figure of hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system (Fig. 7-16)

Chapter 8 New information on etiology of AMAN in Running Problem Updated glial cell function and role in pathologies Added channel kinetics and channel inactivation Added rectifying synapses Added information on oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) Updated information on long-term and short-term synaptic plasticity Updated information on mechanisms of long-term potentiation and long-term depression Updated channelopathies causing long QT syndrome Updated information on neural stem cells and stem cell transplants for Batten disease Added role of dissociation in termination of NT action New photograph of Purkinje cell New image of dendritic spines Updated Table 8-4 with neurocrines and receptors Revised Fig. 8-21 to reflect docking protein structure New Figure Question in Fig. 8-17 Added additional Level 3 and Level 4 questions

Chapter 9 Updated information on brain-computer interfaces Added information on factors contributing to major depression, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) New Figure Questions and end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 10 Updated discussions of pain and itch Revised model for taste transduction, including type III (presynaptic) cells and type II (receptor) cells, CD36 fat receptors, and T1R sweet-umami receptors in the gut

New to This Edition

Two new figures for taste New figures for olfactory and auditory pathways New information on cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels in rods New information on phantom limb pain, endolymphatic hydrops, and diabetic neuropathy Five new Figure Questions and four new Level Three and Four questions

Chapter 11 Updated information on adrenergic receptor antagonists Updated information on nAChR receptor structure and receptor-channel inactivation Updated nicotine addiction in Running Problem Revised data on teen smoking

Chapter 12 Added information on DHP receptors as L-type Ca2+ channels Added two cross-bridge states to discussion of sliding filament theory Updated control of store-operated Ca2+ channels Updated theories of causes of muscle fatigue Revised figure of contraction-relaxation cycle Added information on role of channelopathies in periodic paralyses New Concept Check question

Chapter 13 Updated discussions of central pattern generators Two new Figure Questions

Chapter 14 Updated information on cardiac stem cells Added information on NCX Na-Ca exchanger and L-type Ca2+ channels New Concept Check question and four new Figure Questions New information on atrial fibrillation

Chapter 15 Added information on nitric oxide Added concept of arteries as pressure reservoir and veins as volume reservoir Updated information on angiogenesis Added information on liver sinusoids Added pre-eclampsia Updated information on cardiovascular disease and hypertension in text and Running Problem New summary map figure of factors influencing blood flow New Figure Questions

Chapter 16 Updated information on stem cells and cord blood Added information on warnings on EPO-like drugs

Chapter 17 Introduced kilopascals as an alternate unit for pressures Added discussion of positive pressure ventilation and obstructive sleep apnea


Added forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) New discussion of alveolar fluid transport Added idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Included ideal gas law in gas law table Revised anatomical art to show scalenes and sternocleidomastoid Expanded and updated discussion of COPD in Running Problem

Chapter 18 Revised model of neural control of breathing, including preBötzinger complex, pontine respiratory group, and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) Added phrenic, intercostal, vagus, and glossopharyngeal nerves New figure showing brainstem centers for ventilation New section on alveolar flooding and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Updated information on glomus cell neurotransmitters Updated role of Hering-Breuer reflex in humans New Level Three question on alveolar fluid transport New Figure Question

Chapter 19 Updated information on urate transport, including organic anion exchanger (OAT), urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and urate transporter (UAT) Added new proteins nephrin and podocin to discussion of filtration slits Added megalin to discussion of renal protein reabsorption

Chapter 20 New Concept Check question on peripheral osmoreceptors Added discussion of direct renin inhibitor drugs and vasopressin receptor antagonists Updated model of osmoreceptor activation Added Level Three question about vasopressin receptor antagonists New information about luminal carbonic anhydrase Added discussion of cell volume regulation New Concept Check questions

Chapter 21 Updated information on detection and treatment of H. pylori Added information on ICCs as pacemakers and possible role in functional bowel disorders Updated information on transporters, including oligopeptide transporter Pep T l and oligopeptides Updated information on cholesterol transport, including NPCILI cholesterol transporter and ezetimibe Added information about sucralose Added iron absorption, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin, and hepcidin Updated information on gastroparesis and gastric pacemakers New information on taste receptors in the gut New mapping question and Level Three question on hemochromatosis New Figure and Concept Check questions


New to This Edition

Chapter 22 New Concept Check question on DPP-4 inhibitors Updated information on control of appetite and food intake, including adipocytokines and obestatin Updated information on drugs for diabetes, including dipeptidyl peptidase-4, DPP-4 inhibitors, and sitagliptin Updated diabetes statistics

Chapter 23 Updated information on thyroid cell function, including pendrin (SLC26A4) and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) New Figure Question

Chapter 24 Substantially revised art Updated information on natural killer cell function Updated AIDS treatment: HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) cocktail Added pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), tolllike receptors (TLRs), and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)

Updated clonal deletion and antibody-mediated immunity New Figure Questions

Chapter 25 Updated information on exercise and disease Revised heat stroke running problem New Concept Check question

Chapter 26 New information on AMH in ovaries Added role of kisspeptin in gonadotropin release Role of insulin and IFG-1 in reproduction Updated information on contraceptive methods (NuvaRing) New Concept Check questions, including one on timing of ovulation based on cycle length New Emerging Concepts box on AMH as a follicular marker and role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Acknowledgments Writing, editing, and publishing a textbook is a group project that requires the talent and expertise of many people. I particularly want to acknowledge Bruce Johnson, Cornell University, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, a superb neurobiologist and educator, who once again contributed his expertise to ensure that the chapters on neurobiology are accurate and reflect the latest developments in that rapidly changing field. Many other people devoted time and energy to making this book a reality, and I would like to thank them all, collectively and individually. I apologize in advance to anyone whose name I ve left out.

REVIEWERS I am particularly grateful to the instructors who reviewed one or more chapters of the third edition. There were many suggestions in their thoughtful reviews that I was unable to include in the text but I appreciate the time and thought that went into their comments. The reviewers for this edition include: Anthony (Tony) Apostolidis, San Joaquin Delta College Heather Ashworth, Utah Valley State College Albert Herrera, University of Southern California Chris Glembotski, San Diego State University Jennifer Lundmark, California State University, Sacramento Charles Miller, Colorado State University Gemma Niermann, St. Mary s College of California Chris Ward, Queen s University Carola Wright, Mt. San Antonio College

Many other instructors and students took time to write or email queries or suggestions for clarification. I am always delighted to have input, and I apologize that I do not have room to acknowledge them individually.

SPECIALTY REVIEWS No one can be an expert in every area of physiology, and I am deeply thankful for my friends and colleagues who reviewed entire chapters or answered specific questions. Even with their help, there may be errors, for which I take full responsibility. The specialty reviewers for this edition were: George Brooks, University of California, Berkeley Helen Cooke, Ohio State University Glenn Hatton, University of California, Riverside Michael G. Levitzky, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Stan Lindstedt, Northern Arizona University

Jeffrey Pommerville, Maricopa Community Colleges Frank Powell, University of California, San Diego Roy Russ, Mercer University School of Medicine

The following individuals contributed analogies, figure suggestions, and ideas that appear in this edition: Jean Hardwick, Ithaca College Albert Berger, University of Washington Andy Bass, Cornell University Ken Wright, University of Colorado Hootan Khatami, Merck & Co., Inc.

PHOTOGRAPHS I would like to thank the following colleagues who generously provided micrographs from their research: Kristen Harris, University of Texas Flora M. Love, University of Texas Jane Lubisher, University of Texas Young-Jin Son, University of Texas

SUPPLEMENTS I am very grateful to my friends and colleagues who worked this edition s supplements: Joanna Disnmore, Peter English, Paul Findell, Meg Flemming, Gary Heisermann, Sarah Kennedy,Catherine Loudon, Jennifer Lundmark, Jan Machart, Alice Martin, and Cheryl Smith. They all know how I teach and think, and I believe their work allows the supplements to the book to reflect the style of the text. Damian Hill once again worked with me to revise and improve the Instructor s Resource Guide and Student Workbook.

THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION TEAM Writing a manuscript is only a first step in the long and complicated process that results in a bound book with all its ancillaries. In this edition I was delighted to work once again with Anne A. Reid, development editor extraodinaire who makes revisions as painless as they can be. I also enjoyed working for the first time with Antonio Padial, my copy editor, who made my life easier by providing me with excellent style sheets. As usual, Bill Ober and Claire Garrison, my art coauthors, used their considerable talents to improve the art in this edition. Yvo Riezebos was the talented designer who created the cover and interior page designs.




The team at Benjamin Cummings worked tirelessly to see this edition move from manuscript to bound book. My Executive Editor, Deirdre Espinoza, produced a baby at the same time as this edition, so in her absence much of the work of shepherding the fifth edition fell into the able hands of Katy German, my Project Editor. Katy gently but firmly kept me and everyone else on schedule. Shannon Cutt was the Assistant Editor who coordinated the print supplements and assisted Katy. Once again it was a real pleasure to work with Karen Gulliver, Production Editor, and Maureen Sphuler, Photo Editor, who simplified the production as much as is possible for a project this size. Aimee Pavy was the Media Producer who kept my supplements authors on task and on schedule. Christy Lawrence is the Executive Marketing Manager who works with the excellent sales teams at Benjamin Cummings and Pearson International.

SPECIAL THANKS As always, I would like to thank my students and colleagues who looked for errors and areas that needed improvement. My graduate teaching assistants have played a huge role in my teaching ever since I arrived at the University of Texas, and their input has helped shape how I teach. Many of them are now faculty members themselves. I would particularly like to thank: Lynn Cialdella, M.S., M.B.A. Patti Thorn, Ph.D. Karina Loyo-Garcia, Ph. D. Jan M. Machart, Ph.D. Ari Berman, Ph.D. Kurt Venator, Ph.D. Peter English, Ph.D. Kira Wenstrom, Ph.D. Lawrence Brewer, Ph.D. Carol C. Linder, Ph.D.

Finally, special thanks to my colleagues in the American Physiological Society and the Human Anatomy & Physiology Society, whose experiences in the classroom

have enriched my own understanding of how to teach physiology. I would also like to recognize a special group of friends for their continuing support: Ruth Buskirk, Judy Edmiston, Jeanne Lagowski, Jan M. Machart and Marilla Svinicki (University of Texas), Penelope Hansen (Memorial University, St. John s), Mary Anne Rokitka (SUNY Buffalo), Rob Carroll (East Carolina University School of Medicine), Cindy Gill (Hampshire College), and Joel Michael (Rush Medical College). As always, I thank my family and friends for their patience, understanding, and support during the chaos that seems inevitable with book revisions. The biggest thank you goes to my husband Andy, who keeps me focused on what s really important in life.

A WORK IN PROGRESS One of the most rewarding aspects of writing a textbook is the opportunity it has given me to meet or communicate with other instructors and students. In the years since the first edition was published, I have heard from people around the world, and have had the pleasure of hearing how the book has been incorporated into their teaching and learning. Because science textbooks are revised every three or four years, they are always works in progress. I invite you to contact me or my publisher with any suggestions, corrections, or comments about this fourth edition. I am most reachable through e-mail at silverthorn@ You can reach my editor at the following address: Applied Sciences Benjamin Cummings 1301 Sansome Street San Francisco, CA 94111 Dee U. Silverthorn University of Texas Austin, Texas


Introduction to Physiology Physiological Systems

The Science of Physiology

Function and Process



Good Scienti c Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed


Physiology: Moving Beyond the Genome

The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Dif cult to Interpret


Human Studies Can Take Many Forms

Themes in Physiology

Searching and Reading the Scienti c Literature

Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Thermography of the human body. Warmer areas are red, cooler are blue.

Physiology is not a science or a profession but a point of view. Ralph W. Gerard


Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology


or most of recorded history, humans have been interested in how their bodies work. Early Egyptian, Indian, and Chinese writings describe attempts by physicians to treat various diseases and to restore health. Although some ancient remedies, such as camel dung and powdered sheep horn, may seem bizarre, we are still using others, such as blood-sucking leeches and chemicals derived from medicinal plants. The way we use these treatments has changed as we have learned more about the human body. To treat disease and injury appropriately, we must rst understand the human body in its healthy state. Physiology is the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical processes. The term physiology literally means knowledge of nature. Aristotle (384 322 B.C.E.) used the word in this broad sense to describe the functioning of all living organisms, not just of the human body. However, Hippocrates (ca. 460 377 B.C.E.), considered the father of medicine, used the word physiology to mean the healing power of nature, and thereafter the eld became closely associated with medicine. By the sixteenth century in Europe, physiology had been formalized as the study of the vital functions of the human body, although today the term is again used to refer to the study of the functions of all animals and plants. In contrast, anatomy is the study of structure, with much less emphasis on function. Despite this distinction, anatomy and physiology cannot truly be separated. The function of a tissue or organ is closely tied to its structure, and the structure of the tissue or organ presumably evolved to provide an ef cient physical base for its function.

PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS To understand how physiology relates to anatomy, we must first examine the component parts of the human body. Figure 1-1 * shows the different levels of organization of living organisms, ranging from atoms to groups of the same species

(populations) to populations of different species living together in ecosystems and in the biosphere. The various sub-disciplines of chemistry and biology related to the study of each organizational level are included in the gure. There is considerable overlap between the different elds, and these arti cial divisions vary according to who is de ning them. One distinguishing feature of physiology is that it encompasses many levels of organization, from the molecular level all the way up to populations of a species. At a fundamental level, atoms of elements link together to form molecules. The smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes is the cell. Cells are collections of molecules separated from the external environment by a barrier called the cell (or plasma) membrane. Simple organisms are composed of only one cell, but complex organisms have many cells with different structural and functional specializations. Collections of cells that carry out related functions are known as tissues [texere, to weave]. Tissues form structural and functional units known as organs [organon, tool], and groups of organs integrate their functions to create organ systems. Figure 1-2 * is a schematic diagram showing the interrelationships of most of the 10 physiological organ systems in the human body (Tbl. 1-1 *). The integumentary system [integumentum, covering], composed of the skin, forms a protective boundary that separates the body s internal environment from the external environment (the outside world). The musculoskeletal system provides support and body movement. Four systems exchange materials between the internal and external environments. The respiratory system exchanges gases, the digestive system takes up nutrients and water and eliminates wastes, the urinary system removes excess water and waste material, and the reproductive system produces eggs or sperm. The remaining four systems extend throughout the body. The circulatory system distributes materials by pumping blood through vessels. The nervous and endocrine systems





* FIGURE 1-1





Organ systems


Levels of organization and the related elds of study

Populations of one species

Ecosystem of different species


Function and Process


Integumentary System Respiratory system Nervous system Circulatory system Endocrine system Digestive system

Musculoskeletal system Urinary system Reproductive system

* FIGURE 1-2

The integration between systems of the body. This schematic

gure indicates relationships between systems of the human body. The interiors of some hollow organs (shown in white) open to the external environment.

coordinate body functions. Note that the gure shows them as a continuum rather than as two distinct systems. Why? Because as we have learned more about the integrative nature of physiological function, the lines between these two systems have blurred. The one system not shown in Figure 1-2 is the diffuse immune system. Immune cells are positioned to intercept material that may enter through the exchange surfaces or through a break in the skin, and they protect the internal environment from foreign invaders. In addition, immune tissues are closely associated with the circulatory system.

FUNCTION AND PROCESS Function and process are two related concepts in physiology. The function of a physiological system or event is the why of the system or event: why does the system exist and why does the event happen? This way of thinking about a subject is called the teleological approach to science. For example, the teleological answer to the question of why red blood cells transport oxygen is because cells need oxygen and red blood cells bring it to them. This answer explains the reason why red

blood cells transport oxygen but says nothing about how the cells transport oxygen. In contrast, physiological processes, or mechanisms, are the how of a system. The mechanistic approach to physiology examines process. The mechanistic answer to the question Why do red blood cells transport oxygen? is Oxygen binds to hemoglobin molecules in the red blood cells. This very concrete answer explains exactly how oxygen transport occurs but says nothing about the signi cance of oxygen transport to the intact animal. Students often confuse these two approaches to thinking about physiology. Studies have shown that even medical students tend to answer questions with teleological explanations when the more appropriate response would be a mechanistic explanation. Often this occurs because instructors ask why a physiological event occurs when they really want to know how. Staying aware of the two approaches will help prevent confusion. Although function and process seem to be two sides of the same coin, it is possible to study processes, particularly at the cellular and subcellular level, without understanding their



Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology


Organ Systems of the Human Body





Heart, blood vessels, blood

Transport of materials between all cells of the body


Stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas

Conversion of food into particles that can be transported into the body; elimination of some wastes


Thyroid gland, adrenal gland

Coordination of body function through synthesis and release of regulatory molecules


Thymus, spleen, lymph nodes

Defense against foreign invaders



Protection from external environment


Skeletal muscles, bones

Support and movement


Brain, spinal cord

Coordination of body function through electrical signals and release of regulatory molecules


Ovaries and uterus, testes

Perpetuation of the species


Lungs, airways

Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the internal and external environments


Kidneys, bladder

Maintenance of water and solutes in the internal environment; waste removal

function in the life of the organism. As biological knowledge becomes more complex, scientists sometimes become so involved in studying complex processes that they fail to step back and look at the signi cance of those processes to cells, organ systems, or the intact animal. One role of physiology is to integrate function and process into a cohesive picture.

HOMEOSTASIS As we think about physiological functions, we often consider their adaptive signi cance in other words, why does a certain function help an animal survive in a particular situation? For example, humans are large, mobile, terrestrial animals whose bodies maintain relatively constant water content despite living in a dry, highly variable external environment. What structures and mechanisms have evolved in our anatomy and physiology that enable us to survive in this hostile environment? Most cells in our bodies are not very tolerant of changes in their surroundings. In this way they are similar to early organisms that lived in tropical seas, a stable environment where salinity, oxygen content, and pH vary little and where light and temperature cycle in predictable ways. The internal composition of these ancient creatures was almost identical to that of seawater, and if environmental conditions changed, conditions inside the primitive organisms changed as well. Even today, marine invertebrates cannot tolerate signi cant changes in salinity and pH, as you know if you have ever maintained a saltwater aquarium. In both ancient and modern times, many

marine organisms relied on the constancy of their external environment to keep their internal environment in balance. In contrast, as organisms evolved and migrated from the ancient seas into estuaries, then into freshwater environments and onto the land, they encountered highly variable external environments. Rains dilute the salty water of estuaries, and organisms that live there must cope with the in ux of water into their body uids. Terrestrial organisms constantly lose internal water to the dry air around them. The organisms that survive in these challenging habitats cope with external variability by keeping their internal environment relatively stable, an ability known as homeostasis [homeo-, similar * -stasis, condition]. The watery internal environment of multicellular animals is called the extracellular uid [extra-, outside of], a sea within the body that surrounds the cells (Fig. 1-3 *). Extracellular uid (ECF) serves as the transition between an organism s external environment and the intracellular uid inside cells [intra-, within]. Because extracellular uid is a buffer zone between the outside world and most cells of the body, elaborate physiological processes have evolved to keep its composition relatively stable. When the extracellular uid composition varies outside its normal range of values, compensatory mechanisms activate and return the uid to the normal state. For example, when you drink a large volume of water, the dilution of your extracellular uid triggers a mechanism that causes your kidneys to remove excess water and protect your cells from dilution. Most cells of multicellular animals do not tolerate much change and


depend on the constancy of extracellular uid to maintain normal function. The concept of a relatively stable internal environment was developed by the French physician Claude Bernard in the mid-1800s. During his studies of experimental medicine, Bernard noted the stability of various physiological functions, such as body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. As the chair of physiology at the University of Paris, he wrote of la xité du milieu intérieur (the constancy of the internal environment). This idea was applied to many of the experimental observations of his day, and it became the subject of discussion among physiologists and physicians. In 1929, an American physiologist named Walter B. Cannon created the word homeostasis to describe the regulation of this internal environment. In his essay,* Cannon explained that he selected the pre x homeo- (meaning like or similar) rather than the pre x homo- (meaning same) because the internal environment is maintained within a range of values rather than at an exact xed value. He also pointed out that the sufx -stasis in this instance means a condition, not a state that is static and unchanging. Cannon s homeostasis is a state of maintaining a similar condition, also described as a relatively constant internal environment. Some physiologists contend that a literal interpretation of stasis [a state of standing] in the word homeostasis implies a static, unchanging state. They argue that we should use the word homeodynamics instead, to re ect the small changes constantly taking place in our internal environment [dynamikos, force or power]. Whether the process is called homeostasis or homeodynamics, the important concept to remember is that the body monitors its internal state and takes action to correct disruptions that threaten its normal function. Homeostasis and the regulation of the internal environment are key principles of physiology and create an underlying theme of each chapter in this book. Using observations made by numerous physiologists and physicians during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Cannon proposed a list of variables that are under homeostatic control. We now know that his list was both accurate and complete. Cannon divided his variables into what he described as environmental factors that affect cells (osmolarity, temperature, and pH) and materials for cell needs (nutrients, water, sodium, calcium, other inorganic ions, oxygen, and internal secretions having general and continuous effects ). Cannon s internal secretions are the hormones and other chemicals that our cells use to communicate with one another. If the body fails to maintain homeostasis of these variables, then normal function is disrupted and a disease state, or pathological condition [pathos, suffering], may result. Diseases can be divided into two general groups according to their WB. Organization for physiological homeostasis. Physiol Rev 9: *399Cannon 443, 1929.


External environment of the body Material enters and leaves the body

Exchange cells

Material enters and leaves the body

Intracellular fluid of most cells

Extracellular fluid: the internal environment of the body Prote ctive cells

* FIGURE 1-3

Relationships between an organism s internal and external environments. Few cells in the body are able to exchange material with the organism s external environment. Most cells are in contact with the body s internal environment, composed of the extracellular uid.

origin: those in which the problem arises from internal failure of some normal physiological process, and those that originate from some outside source. Internal causes of disease include the abnormal growth of cells, which may cause cancer or benign tumors; the production of antibodies by the body against its own tissues (autoimmune diseases); and the premature death of cells or the failure of cell processes. Inherited disorders are also considered to have internal causes. External causes of disease include toxic chemicals, physical trauma, and foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria. In both internally and externally caused diseases, when homeostasis is disturbed, the body attempts to compensate (Fig. 1-4 *). If the compensation is successful, homeostasis is restored. If compensation fails, illness or disease may result. The study of body functions in a disease state is known as pathophysiology. You will encounter many examples of pathophysiology as we study the various systems of the body. One very common pathological condition in the United States is diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high blood glucose concentrations. Although we speak of diabetes as if it were a single disease, it is actually a whole family of diseases with various causes and manifestations. You will learn more about diabetes in the focus boxes scattered throughout the chapters of this book. The in uence of this one disorder on many systems of the body makes it an excellent example of the integrative nature of physiology.



Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology

Organism in homeostasis

External change

Internal change

Internal change results in loss of homeostasis

Organism attempts to compensate

Compensation fails

Compensation succeeds

Illness or disease


* FIGURE 1-4


PHYSIOLOGY: MOVING BEYOND THE GENOME There has never been a more exciting time to study human physiology. Today we bene t from centuries of work by physiologists who constructed a foundation of knowledge about how the human body functions. Since the 1970s, rapid advances in the elds of cellular and molecular biology have supplemented this work. A few decades ago we thought that we would nd the key to the secret of life by sequencing the human genome, which is the collective term for all the genetic information contained in the DNA of a species. However, this deconstructionist view of biology has proved to have its limitations because living organisms are much more than the simple sum of their parts. The Human Genome Project ( began in 1990 with the goal of identifying and sequencing all the genes in human DNA (the genome). However, as research advanced our understanding of DNA function, scientists had to revise their original idea that a given segment of DNA contained one gene that coded for one protein. It became clear that one gene may code for many proteins. The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003, but before then researchers had moved beyond genomics to proteomics, the study of proteins in living organisms. Now scientists are coming to realize that knowing that a protein is made in a particular cell does not always tell us the signi cance of that protein to the

cell, tissue, or functioning animal. The exciting new areas in biological research are called functional genomics, systems biology, and integrative biology, but fundamentally these are all elds of physiology that investigate integrated function, from subcellular mechanisms to the intact organism. If you read the scienti c literature, it appears that contemporary research, using the tools of molecular biology, has exploded into an era of omes and omics. What is an ome ? The term apparently derives from the Latin word for a mass or tumor, and it is now used to refer to a collection of items that make up a whole, such as a genome. One of the earliest uses of the ome suf x in biology is the term biome, meaning the entire community of organisms living in a major ecological region, such as the marine biome or the desert biome. A genome is all the genes in an organism, and a proteome includes all the proteins in that organism. The related adjective omics describes the research related to studying an ome. Adding omics to a root word has become the cutting-edge way to describe a research eld. For example, the traditional study of biochemistry now includes metabolomics (study of metabolic pathways) and interactomics (the study of protein-protein interactions). If you search the Internet, you will nd numerous listings for the transcriptome (RNA), lipidome (lipids), and pharmacogenomics (the in uence of genetics on the body s response to drugs). The omics craze has also given us such terms as cellome, enzymome, and unknome (proteins with unknown functions). There is even a journal named OMICS! The Physiome Project ( is an organized international effort to coordinate molecular, cellular, and physiological information about living organisms into an Internet database. Scientists around the world can access this information and apply it in their own research efforts to create better drugs or genetic therapies for curing and preventing disease. Some scientists are using the data to create mathematical models that explain how the body functions. The Physiome Project is an ambitious undertaking that promises to integrate information from diverse areas of research so that we can improve our understanding of the complex processes we call life.

THEMES IN PHYSIOLOGY Recall the quotation that opens this chapter: Physiology is not a science or a profession but a point of view. * Physiologists pride themselves on relating the processes they study to the functioning of the organism as a whole. Being able to think about how multiple body systems integrate their function is one of the more dif cult aspects of learning physiology. If you are to develop expertise in physiology, you must do more than simply memorize facts and learn new terminology. Researchers have found that the ability to solve problems requires a conceptual framework, or big picture, of the eld. Gerard RW. Mirror to Physiology: A Self-Survey of Physiological Science. *Washington, D.C.: American Physiology Society, 1958.

Themes in Physiology


Key Concepts (Themes) in Physiology

1. Homeostasis and control systems 2. Biological energy use 3. Structure/function relationships Compartmentation Mechanical properties of cells, tissues, and organs Molecular interactions 4. Communication Information ow Mass ow

Input signal

* FIGURE 1-5



Output signal

A simple control system

The ability of individual molecules to bind to or react with other molecules is essential for biological function, and this ability is intimately related to each molecule s structure. Examples of molecular interactions include enzymes that speed up chemical reactions, and signal molecules that bind to membrane proteins. Molecular interactions are discussed in Chapter 2.

Molecular interactions

Compartmentation, or the presence of separate compartments, allows a cell, a tissue, or an organ to specialize and isolate functions. Membranes separate cells from one another and from the extracellular uid, and create tiny compartments within the cell called organelles. At the macroscopic level, the tissues and organs of the body form discrete functional compartments. Compartmentation is the theme of Chapter 3.

Compartmentation of the body and of cells

This book will help you build a conceptual framework for physiology by explicitly describing basic biological concepts, or themes. Four major themes in this book are homeostasis and control systems, biological energy use, structure-function relationships, and communication (Tbl. 1-2 *). As you work through the text, you will nd that these concepts, with variations, occur repeatedly in the different organ systems.

Homeostasis and Control Systems

As discussed earlier in this chapter, a central concept in physiology is homeostasis, the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment. The body has certain key variables, such as blood pressure and blood glucose concentration, that must be kept within a particular operating range if the body is to remain healthy. These important regulated variables are monitored and adjusted by physiological control systems. In its simplest form, a control system has three components: (1) an input signal; (2) a controller, which is programmed to respond to certain input signals; and (3) an output signal (Fig. 1-5 *). Most control systems in the body are more complex, however, as they must integrate function among multiple organ systems. The different types of control systems are discussed in Chapter 6.

Biological Energy Use

The processes that take place in organisms require the continuous input of energy. Where does this energy come from, and how is it stored? Chapter 4 answers those questions and describes some of the ways that energy in the body is used for synthesis and breakdown of molecules. In later chapters you will learn how energy is used to transport molecules across cell membranes and to create movement.

Structure-Function Relationships

The integration of structure and function is another physiological theme. Some structural in uences on function include molecular interactions, the division of the body into discrete compartments, and the mechanical properties of cells, tissues, and organs.

The physical properties of cells and tissues are often a direct result of their anatomy. Some of the mechanical properties of cells and tissues that in uence function include compliance (ability to stretch), elastance (ability to return to the unstretched state), strength, exibility, and uidity. In addition, the properties of specialized tissues and organs in the body enable them to function as biological pumps, lters, or motors.

Mechanical properties of cells, tissues, and organs


Both structure/function integration and homeostasis require that body cells communicate with one another rapidly and ef ciently. Information ow in the body takes the form of either chemical signals or electrical signals. Information may pass from one cell to its neighbors (local communication) or from one part of the body to another (longdistance communication). Information stored in the genetic code of DNA is passed from one cell to its daughters and from an organism to its offspring. Communication between intracellular compartments and the extracellular uid requires the transfer of information across the barrier of the cell membrane. The membrane is selectively permeable, which means that some molecules are able to pass through the barrier but others are unable to cross. How molecules cross biological membranes is the topic of Chapter 5. Extracellular signal molecules that cannot enter the cell pass their message across the cell membrane by a process known as signal transduction. Chemical communication and signal transduction are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.



Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology

In physiology we are also concerned with mass ow, the movement of substances within and between compartments of the body. Blood ows through the circulatory system; air ows into and out of the lungs; gases, nutrients, and wastes move into and out of cells. The movement of materials in mass ow is made possible by a driving force, such as a pressure or concentration difference (a gradient). In some situations, mass ow is opposed by friction or other forces that create resistance to ow. Most mass ow in the body requires the input of energy at some point in the process. The concepts of gradients, ow, and resistance are reintroduced in Chapter 5. These themes will appear over and over again in the chapters of this book. Look for them in the summary material at the end of the chapters and in the end-of-chapter questions.

PHYSIOLOGY IS AN INTEGRATIVE SCIENCE Physiologists are trained to think about the integration of function across many levels of organization, from molecules to the living body. (To integrate means to bring varied elements together to create a uni ed whole.) One of the current challenges in physiology is integrating information from different body systems into a cohesive picture of the living human body. This process is complicated by the fact that many complex systems including those of the human body possess emergent properties, which are properties that cannot be predicted to exist based only on knowledge of the system s individual components. An emergent property is not a property of any single component of the system and is greater than the simple sum of the system s individual parts. Among the most complex emergent properties in humans are emotion, intelligence, and other aspects of brain function, none of which can be predicted from knowing the individual properties of nerve cells. As previously noted, the integration of function among systems and across many levels of organization is a special focus of physiology. Traditionally, students study the cardiovascular system and regulation of blood pressure in one unit, then study the kidneys and control of body volume in a different unit. In the functioning body, however, the cardiovascular and renal systems communicate with each other, and a change in one is likely to cause a reaction in the other. For example, blood pressure is in uenced by body volume, and changes in blood pressure may have a signi cant effect on kidney function. One of the most intriguing and challenging aspects of learning physiology is developing skills that help you understand how the different organ systems work together. One way physiologists do this is by using two types of maps. The rst type of map, shown in Figure 1-6a *, is a schematic representation of structure or function. The second type of map, shown in Figure 1-6b, diagrams a physiological process and is called a process map. (An alternative name is ow chart.)

The concept of integrated function is the underlying principle in translational research, an approach sometimes described as bench to bedside. Translational research applies the insights and results gained from basic biomedical research to treating and preventing human diseases. At the systems level, we know about most of the mechanics of body function. The unanswered questions involve integration and control of these mechanisms, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels. Nevertheless, explaining what happens in test tubes or isolated cells can only partially answer questions about function. For this reason, animal and human trials are essential steps in the process of applying basic research to treating or curing diseases. Physicians then look in the biomedical literature for evidence from these trials that will help guide their clinical decision-making. Critically evaluating the scienti c evidence in this manner is a practice known as evidence-based medicine.

THE SCIENCE OF PHYSIOLOGY How do we know what we know about the physiology of the human body? Observation and experimentation are the key elements of scienti c inquiry. An investigator observes an event and, using prior knowledge, generates a hypothesis [hypotithenai, to assume], or logical guess, about how the event takes place. The next step is to test the hypothesis by designing an experiment in which the investigator manipulates some aspect of the event.

Good Scienti c Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed A common type of biological experiment either removes or alters some variable that the investigator thinks is an essential part of an observed phenomenon. That altered variable is the independent variable. For example, a biologist notices that birds at a feeder seem to eat more in the winter than in the summer. She generates a hypothesis that cold temperatures cause birds to increase their food intake. To test her hypothesis, she designs an experiment in which she will keep birds at different temperatures and monitor how much food they eat. In her experiment, temperature, the manipulated element, is the independent variable. Food intake, which is hypothesized to be dependent on temperature, becomes the dependent variable.




1. Students in the laboratory run an experiment in which they drink different volumes of water and measure their urine output in the hour following drinking. What are the independent Answers: p. 19 and dependent variables in this experiment?

An essential feature of any experiment is an experimental control. A control group is usually a duplicate of the experimental group in every respect except that the independent variable is not changed from its initial value. For example, in the birdfeeding experiment, the control group would be a set of birds

The Science of Physiology




Person working outside on a hot, dry day

Outside components







Loses body water by evaporation


Dressings and sauces

(a) A map showing structure/function relationships


Body fluids become more concentrated

Internal receptors sense change in internal concentration

FIGURE QUESTIONS Thirst pathways stimulated

1. Can you add more details and links to map (a)? 2. Here is an alphabetical list of terms for a map of the body. Use the steps on the next page to create a map with them. Add additional terms to the map if you like. A sample answer can be found at the end of the chapter. bladder blood vessels brain cardiovascular system digestive system endocrine system heart immune system integumentary system

* FIGURE 1-6

intestine kidneys lungs lymph nodes mouth musculoskeletal system nervous system ovaries

reproductive system respiratory system stomach testes the body thyroid gland urinary system uterus

Person seeks out and drinks water

Water added to body fluids decreases their concentration (b) A process map, or flow chart

Types of maps.

Mapping is a nonlinear way of organizing material that has been shown to improve students understanding and retention of information. It is a useful study tool because creating a map requires thinking about the importance of and relationships between various pieces of information. Studies have shown that when people interact with information by organizing it in their own way before they load it into memory, improved long-term learning results. Mapping is not just a study technique. Experts in a eld make maps when they are trying to integrate newly acquired information into their knowledge base, and they may create two or three versions of a map before they are satis ed that it represents their understanding. Scientists map out the steps in their experiments. Health care professionals create maps to guide them while diagnosing and treating patients. A map can take a variety of forms but usually consists of terms (words or short phrases) linked by arrows to indicate associations. In general, there are three types of associations among the terms in a map: part/type, description/characteris-

tic, and cause/effect. The linking arrows may be labeled with explanatory phrases or may be drawn in different colors to represent different types of links. Maps in physiology usually focus either on the relationships between anatomical structures and physiological processes (structure/function maps) or on normal homeostatic control pathways and responses to abnormal (pathophysiological) events (process maps, or ow charts). If appropriate, a map may also include graphs or pictures. Figure 1-6a is a structure map; Figures 3-9 and 3-22 are examples of structure/function maps. Figures 1-6b and 7-9 are examples of ow charts. Many maps appear in this textbook, and they may serve as the starting point for your own maps. However, the real bene t of mapping comes from preparing maps yourself. By mapping information on your own, you think about the relationships between terms, organize concepts into a hierarchical structure, and look for similarities and differences between items. Interaction with the material in this way helps you process it into long-term memory instead of simply memorizing bits of information and forgetting them.



Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology

FOCUS ON . . . MAPPING (continued)

terms on the map. Labeling the linking arrows with explanatory words may be useful. For example,

Getting Started on Mapping 1.



First, select the terms or concepts to map. (In every chapter of this text, the end-of-chapter questions include at least one list of terms to map.) Sometimes it s helpful to write the terms on individual slips of paper or on 1-by-2-inch sticky notes so that you can rearrange the map more easily. Usually the most dif cult part of mapping is deciding where to begin. Start by grouping related terms in an organized fashion. You may nd that you want to put some terms into more than one group. Make a note of these terms, as they will probably have several arrows pointing to them or leading away from them. Now try to create some hierarchy with your terms. You may arrange the terms on a piece of paper, on a table, or on the oor. In a structure/function map, start at the top with the most general, most important, or overriding concept the one from which all the others stem. In a process map, start with the rst event to occur. Next, either break down the key idea into progressively more speci c parts using the other concepts or follow the event through its time course. Use arrows to point the direction of linkages and include horizontal links to tie related concepts together. The downward development of the map will generally mean either an increase in complexity or the passage of time. You may nd that some of your arrows cross each other. Sometimes this can be avoided by rearranging the

maintained at a warm summer temperature but otherwise treated exactly like the birds held at cold temperatures. The purpose of the control is to ensure that any observed changes are due to the variable being manipulated and not to changes in some other variable. For example, suppose that in the birdfeeding experiment food intake increased after the investigator changed to a different food. Unless she had a control group that was also fed the new food, the investigator could not determine whether the increased food intake was due to temperature or to the fact that the new food was more palatable. During an experiment, the investigator carefully collects information, or data [plural; singular datum, a thing given], about the effect that the manipulated (independent) variable has on the observed (dependent) variable. Once the investigator feels that she has suf cient information to draw a conclusion, she begins to analyze the data. Analysis can take many forms and usually includes statistical analysis to determine if apparent differences are statistically signi cant. A common format for presenting data is a graph (see Fig. 1-7 * in Focus on Graphs).

channel proteins





open channels.

Color can be very effective on maps. You can use colors for different types of links or for different categories of terms. You may also add pictures and graphs that are associated with speci c terms in your map. Once you have created your map, sit back and think about it. Are all the items in the right place? You may want to move them around once you see the big picture. Revise your map to ll in the picture with new concepts or to correct wrong linkages. Review by recalling the main concept and then moving to the more speci c details. Ask yourself questions like, What is the cause? effect? parts involved? main characteristics? to jog your memory. A useful way to study with a map is to trade maps with a classmate and try to understand each other s maps. Your maps will almost certainly NOT look the same! That s OK. Remember that your map re ects the way you think about the subject, which may be different from the way someone else thinks about it. Did one of you put in something the other forgot? Did one of you have an incorrect link between two items? Practice making maps. The study questions in each chapter will give you some ideas of what you should be mapping. Your instructor can help you get started.

If one experiment supports the hypothesis that cold causes birds to eat more, then the experiment should be repeated to ensure that the results were not an unusual one-time event. This step is called replication. When the data support a hypothesis in multiple experiments, the hypothesis may become working model. Models with substantial evidence supporting them may be known as a scienti c theory. Most information presented in textbooks like this one is based on models that scientists have developed from the best available experimental evidence. On occasion, new experimental evidence that does not support a current model is published. In that case, the model must be revised to t the available evidence. For this reason, you may learn a physiological fact while using this textbook, but in 10 years that fact may be inaccurate because of what scientists have discovered in the interval. For example, in 1970 students learned that the cell membrane was a butter sandwich, a structure composed of a layer of fats sandwiched between two layers of proteins. In 1972, however, scientists presented a very different model of

The Science of Physiology

the membrane, in which globules of proteins oat within a double layer of fats. As a result, textbook writers had to revise their descriptions of cell membranes, and students who had learned the butter sandwich model had to revise their mental model of the membrane. Where do our scienti c models for human physiology come from? We have learned much of what we know from experiments on animals ranging from squid to rats. In many instances, the physiological processes in such animals are either identical to those taking place in humans or else similar enough that we can extrapolate from the animal model to humans. It is important to use nonhuman models because experiments using human subjects can be dif cult to perform. However, not all studies done on animals can be applied to humans. For example, an antidepressant that had been used safely by Europeans for years was undergoing stringent testing required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before it could be sold in this country. When beagles were given the drug for a period of months, the dogs started dying from heart problems. Scientists were alarmed until further research showed that beagles have a unique genetic makeup that causes them to break down the drug into a more toxic substance. The drug was perfectly safe in other breeds of dogs and in humans, and it was subsequently approved for human use.

The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Dif cult to Interpret There are many reasons it is dif cult to carry out physiological experiments in humans, including variability, psychological factors, and ethical considerations.


Human populations have tremendous genetic and environmental variability. Although physiology books usually present average values for many physiological variables, such as blood pressure, these average values simply represent a number that falls somewhere near the middle of a wide range of values. Thus, to show signi cant differences between experimental and control groups in a human experiment, an investigator would, ideally, have to include a large number of identical subjects. However, getting two groups of people who are identical in every respect is impossible. Instead, the researcher must attempt to recruit subjects who are similar in as many aspects as possible. You may have seen newspaper advertisements requesting research volunteers: Healthy males between 18 and 25, nonsmokers, within 10% of ideal body weight, to participate in a study. . . . The variability inherent in even a select group of humans must be taken into account when doing experiments with human subjects because variability may affect the researcher s ability to accurately interpret the signi cance of data collected on that group. One way to reduce variability within a test population, whether human or animal, is to do a crossover study. In a


crossover study, each individual acts both as experimental subject and as control. Thus, each individual s response to the treatment can be compared with his or her own control value. This method is particularly effective when there is wide variability within a population. For example, in a test of blood pressure medication, subjects might be divided into two groups. Group A takes an inactive substance called a placebo (from the Latin for I shall be pleasing ) for the rst half of the experiment, then changes to the experimental drug for the second half. Group B starts with the experimental drug, then changes to the placebo. This scheme enables the researcher to assess the effect of the drug on each individual. Statistically, the resulting data can be analyzed using various methods that look at the changes in the data within each individual rather than at changes in the collective group data.

Psychological Factors

Another signi cant variable in human studies is the psychological aspect of administering a treatment. If you give someone a pill and tell the person that it will help alleviate some problem, there is a strong possibility that the pill will have exactly that effect, even if it contains only sugar or an inert substance. This well-documented phenomenon is called the placebo effect. Similarly, if you warn people that a drug they are taking may have speci c adverse side effects, those people will report a higher incidence of the side effects than a similar group of people who were not warned. This phenomenon is called the nocebo effect, from the Latin word nocere, to do harm. The placebo and nocebo effects show the ability of our minds to alter the physiological functioning of our bodies. In setting up an experiment with human subjects, we must try to control for the placebo and nocebo effects. The simplest way to do this is with a blind study, in which the subjects do not know whether they are receiving the treatment or the placebo. Even this precaution can fail, however, if the researchers assessing the subjects know which type of treatment each subject is receiving. The researchers expectations of what the treatment will or will not do may color their measurements or interpretations. To avoid this outcome, researchers often use double-blind studies, in which a third party, not involved in the experiment, is the only one who knows which group is receiving the experimental treatment and which group is receiving the control treatment. The most sophisticated experimental design for minimizing psychological effects is the double-blind crossover study, in which the control group in the rst half of the experiment becomes the experimental group in the second half, and vice versa.

Ethical Considerations

Ethical questions arise when humans are used as experimental subjects, particularly when the subjects are people suffering from a disease or other illness. Is it ethical to withhold a new and promising treatment from the



Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology


8 Food intake (g/day)

Graphs are pictorial representations of the relationship between two (or more) variables, plotted in a rectangular region (Fig. 1-7a). We use graphs to present a large amount of numerical data in a small space, to emphasize comparisons between variables, or to show trends over time. A viewer can extract information much more rapidly from a graph than from a table of numbers or from a written description. A well-constructed graph should contain (in very abbreviated form) everything the reader needs to know about the data, including the purpose of the experiment, how the experiment was conducted, and the results. All scienti c graphs have common features. The independent variable (the variable manipulated by the experimenter) is graphed on the horizontal x-axis. The dependent variable (the variable measured by the experimenter) is plotted on the vertical y-axis. If the experimental design is valid and the hypothesis is correct, changes in the independent variable (x-axis) will cause changes in the dependent variable (y-axis). In other words, y is a function of x. This relationship can be expressed mathematically as y * f(x). Each axis of a graph is divided into units represented by evenly spaced tick marks on the axis. A label tells what variable the axis represents (time, temperature, amount of food consumed) and in what units it is marked (days, degrees Celsius, grams per day). The intersection of the two axes is called the origin. The origin usually, but not always, has a value of zero for both axes. A graph should have a title or legend that describes what the graph represents. If

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A

B Diet

Canaries were fed one of three diets and their food intake was monitored for three weeks.



GRAPH QUESTION Which food did the canaries prefer?

(b) Bar graph. Each bar shows a distinct variable. The bars are lined up side by side along one axis so that they can be easily compared with one another. Scientific bar graphs traditionally have the bars running vertically.

multiple groups are shown on one graph, the lines or bars representing the groups may have labels, or a key may show what group each symbol or color represents. Most graphs you will encounter in physiology display data either as bars (bar graphs or histograms), as lines (line graphs), or as dots (scatter plots). Four typical types of graphs are shown in

5 1 unit X



Number of students

Dependent variable (units)



1 unit

4 3 2 1

x-axis Independent variable: (units) Legend





(Describes the information represented by the graph)

(a) The standard features of a graph include units and labels on the axes, a key, and a figure legend.

* FIGURE 1-7







Quiz score

KEY Group A X Group B



The distribution of student scores on a 10-point quiz is plotted on a histogram.




How many students took the quiz?

(c) Histogram. A histogram quantifies the distribution of one variable over a range of values.


The Science of Physiology




90 80


Exam score (%)

Body weight (g)


30 KEY


Males 10








Male and female mice were fed a standard diet and weighed daily.

Figure 1-7b e. Bar graphs (Fig. 1-7b) are used when the independent variables are distinct entities. A histogram (Fig. 1-7c) is a specialized bar graph that shows the distribution of one variable over a range. The x-axis is divided into units (called bins in some computer graphing programs), and the y-axis indicates how many pieces of data are associated with each bin. Line graphs (Fig. 1-7d) are commonly used when the independent variable on the x-axis is a continuous phenomenon, such as time, temperature, or weight. Each point on the graph may represent the average of a set of observations. Because the independent variable is a continuous function, the points on the graph can be connected with a line (point-to-point connections or a mathematically calculated best t line or curve). Connecting the points allows the reader to interpolate, or estimate values between the measured values. Scatter plots (Fig. 1-7e) show the relationship between two variables, such as time spent studying for an exam and performance on that exam. Usually each point on the plot represents one member of a test population. Individual points on a scatter plot are never connected by a line, but a best t line or curve may indicate a trend in the data. Here are some questions to ask when you are trying to extract information from a graph: 1. 2.

What variable does each axis represent? What is the relationship between the variables represented by the axes? This relationship can usually be

4 6 8 Time spent studying (hours)



Student scores were directly related to the amount of time they spent studying.


(d) Line graph. The x-axis frequently represents time; the points represent averaged observations. The points may be connected by lines, in which case the slope of the line between two points shows the rate at which the variable changed.




When did male mice increase their body weight the fastest?












GRAPH QUESTIONS For graphs (d) and (e), answer the following: What was the investigator trying to determine?

What are the independent and dependent variables? What are the results or trends indicated by the data?

(e) Scatter plot. Each point represents one member of a test population. The individual points of a scatter plot are never connected by lines, but a best fit line may be estimated to show a trend in the data, or better yet, the line may be calculated by a mathematical equation.


expressed by substituting the labels on the axes into the following statement: y varies with x. For example, in graph (b), the canaries daily food intake varied with the type of diet. Are any trends apparent in the graph? For line graphs and scatter plots, is the line horizontal (no change in the dependent variable when the independent variable changes), or does it have a slope? Is the line straight or curved? For bar graphs, are the bars the same height or different heights? If different heights, is there a trend in the direction of height change?




2. Students in a physiology laboratory collected heart rate data on one another. In each case, heart rate was measured rst for the subject at rest and again after the subject had exercised using a step test. Two ndings from the experiment were (1) that heart rate was greater with exercise than at rest, and (2) that female subjects had higher resting heart rates than male subjects. (a) What was the independent variable in this experiment? What was the dependent variable? (b) Draw a graph and label each axis with the correct variable. Draw trend lines or bars that might approximate the Answers: p. 19 data collected.


Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology

control group? A noteworthy example occurred a few years ago when researchers were testing the ef cacy of a treatment for dissolving blood clots in heart attack victims. The survival rate among the treated patients was so much higher that testing was halted so that members of the control group could also be given the experimental drug. In contrast, tests on some anticancer agents have shown that the experimental treatments were less effective in stopping the spread of cancer than were the standard treatments used by the controls. Was it ethical to undertreat patients in the experimental group by depriving them of the more-effective current medical practice? Most studies now are evaluated continually over the course of the study to minimize the possibility that subjects will be harmed by their participation. In 2002 a trial on hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women was halted early when investigators realized that women taking a pill containing two hormones were developing cardiovascular disease and breast cancer at a higher rate than women on placebo pills. On the other hand, the women receiving hormones also had lower rates of colon cancer and bone fractures. The investigators decided that the risks associated with taking the hormones exceeded the potential bene ts, and the study was stopped. To learn more about this clinical trial and the pros and cons of hormone replacement therapy, go to www.nlm., the web site of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Human Studies Can Take Many Forms Almost daily the newspapers carry articles about clinical trials studying the ef cacy of drugs or other medical treatments. Many different aspects of experimental design can affect the validity and applicability of the results of these trials. For example, some trials are carried out for only a limited period of time on a limited number of people, such as studies being conducted for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration s drug approval process. In several instances in the past few years, drugs approved as a result of such studies have later been withdrawn from the market when extended use of the drug uncovered adverse side effects, including deaths. Longitudinal studies are designed to be carried out for a long period of time. One of the most famous longitudinal studies is the Framingham Heart Study ( heart), started in 1948 and still ongoing. Framingham is a prospective study [prospectus, outlook, looking forward] that recruited healthy people and has been following them for years to identify factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. This study has already made important contributions to health care and is continuing with the adult children and grandchildren of the original participants. Additional study designs you may encounter in the literature include cross-sectional and retrospective studies. Crosssectional studies survey a population for the prevalence of a disease or condition. Data from cross-sectional studies identify

trends to be investigated further, such as whether age group or socioeconomic status is associated with a higher risk of developing the condition being surveyed. Retrospective studies [retro, backward + spectare, to look] match groups of people who all have a particular disease to a similar but healthy control group to see whether development of the disease can be associated with a particular variable. Often, the results of one or more published studies do not agree with the conclusions of other published studies. In some cases, the reason for the disagreement turns out to be a limitation of the experimental design, such as a small number of subjects who may not be representative of larger populations. In other cases, the disagreement may be due to small but potentially signi cant differences in the experimental designs of the different studies. One way scientists attempt to resolve contradictory results is to perform a meta-analysis of the data [meta-, at a higher level]. A meta-analysis combines all the data from a group of similar studies and uses sophisticated statistical techniques to extract signi cant trends or ndings from the combined data. For example, multiple studies have been done to assess whether glucosamine and chondroitin, two dietary supplements, can improve degenerative joint disease. However, the individual studies had small numbers of subjects ( 120 mm Hg

When the cuff is inflated so that it stops arterial blood flow, no sound can be heard through a stethoscope placed over the brachial artery distal to the cuff.

Cuff pressure between 80 and 120 mm Hg

Korotkoff sounds are created by pulsatile blood flow through the compressed artery.

Inflatable cuff Pressure gauge (b)



* FIGURE 15-7

Cuff pressure < 80 mm Hg

Blood flow is silent when the artery is no longer compressed.

Measurement of arterial blood pressure. Arterial blood

pressure is measured with a sphygmomanometer (an in atable cuff plus a pressure gauge) and a stethoscope. The in ation pressure shown is for a person whose blood pressure is 120/80.

2003 JNC 7 Report* recommend that individuals maintain their blood pressure below 120/80. Persons whose systolic pressure is consistently in the range of 120 139 or whose diastolic pressure is in the range of 80 89 are now considered to be prehypertensive and should be counseled on lifestyle modi cation strategies to reduce their blood pressure.

Cardiac Output and Peripheral Resistance Determine Mean Arterial Pressure Mean arterial pressure is the driving force for blood ow, but what determines mean arterial pressure? Arterial pressure is a balance between blood ow into the arteries and blood ow out of the arteries. If ow in exceeds ow out, blood collects in the arteries, and mean arterial pressure increases. If ow out exceeds ow in, mean arterial pressure falls. Blood ow into the aorta is equal to the cardiac output of the left ventricle. Blood ow out of the arteries is in uenced primarily by peripheral resistance, de ned as the resistance to ow offered by the arterioles (Fig. 15-8 *). Mean arterial pressure Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, *Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, National Institutes of Health.

(MAP) then is proportional to cardiac output (CO) times resistance (R) of the arterioles: MAP * CO + Rarterioles Let s consider how this works. If cardiac output increases, the heart pumps more blood into the arteries per unit time. If



Kurt s second blood pressure reading is 158/98. Dr. Cortez asks him to take his blood pressure at home daily for two weeks and then return to the doctor s of ce. When Kurt comes back with his diary, the story is the same: his blood pressure continues to average 160/100. After running some tests, Dr. Cortez concludes that Kurt is one of approximately 50 million adult Americans with high blood pressure, also called hypertension. If not controlled, hypertension can lead to heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Question 1: Why are people with high blood pressure at greater risk for having a hemorrhagic (or bleeding) stroke? 513








Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure Mean arterial pressure Cardiac output

Variable resistance

Two additional factors can in uence arterial blood pressure: total blood volume and the distribution of blood in the systemic circulation.

Changes in Blood Volume Affect Blood Pressure Arterioles

Left ventricle

Elastic arteries Mean arterial pressure

cardiac output


* FIGURE 15-8

Mean arterial pressure is a function of cardiac output and resistance in the arterioles. In this model, the ventricle is represented by a syringe. The variable diameter of the arterioles is represented by adjustable screws.

resistance to blood ow out of the arteries does not change, ow into the arteries is greater than ow out, blood volume in the arteries increases, and arterial blood pressure increases. In another example, suppose cardiac output remains unchanged but peripheral resistance increases. Flow into arteries is unchanged, but ow out is decreased. Blood again accumulates in the arteries, and the arterial pressure again increases. Most cases of hypertension are believed to be caused by increased peripheral resistance without changes in cardiac output.

Blood volume leads to

Although the volume of the blood in the circulation is usually relatively constant, changes in blood volume can affect arterial blood pressure. If blood volume increases, blood pressure increases. When blood volume decreases, blood pressure decreases. To understand the relationship between blood volume and pressure, think of the circulatory system as an elastic balloon lled with water. If only a small amount of water is in the balloon, little pressure is exerted on the walls, and the balloon is soft and abby. As more water is added to the balloon, more pressure is exerted on the elastic walls. If you ll a balloon close to the bursting point, you risk popping the balloon. The best way to reduce this pressure is to remove some of the water. Small increases in blood volume occur throughout the day due to ingestion of food and liquids, but these increases usually do not create long-lasting changes in blood pressure because of homeostatic compensations. Adjustments for increased blood volume are primarily the responsibility of the kidneys. If blood volume increases, the kidneys restore normal volume by excreting excess water in the urine (Fig. 15-9 *).

KEY Stimulus Integrating center

Blood pressure

Tissue response Systemic response


Fast response

Slow response Compensation by cardiovascular system


Compensation by kidneys

Excretion of fluid in urine blood volume

Cardiac output

* FIGURE 15-9 Blood pressure Blood pressure to normal

control includes rapid responses from the cardiovascular system and slower responses by the kidneys.

Resistance in the Arterioles



Blood volume

Effectiveness of the heart as a pump (cardiac output)

determined by

determined by

Fluid intake

Fluid loss

Heart rate

Stroke volume

Resistance of the system to blood flow

Relative distribution of blood between arterial and venous blood vessels

determined by

determined by

Diameter of the arterioles

Diameter of the veins

may be


* FIGURE 15-10

Regulated at kidneys

Factors that in uence mean arterial pressure

Compensation for decreased blood volume is more dif cult and requires an integrated response from the kidneys and the cardiovascular system. If blood volume decreases, the kidneys cannot restore the lost uid. The kidneys can only conserve blood volume and thereby prevent further decreases in blood pressure. The only way to restore lost uid volume is through drinking or intravenous infusions. This is an example of mass balance: volume lost to the external environment must be replaced from the external environment. Cardiovascular compensation for decreased blood volume includes vasoconstriction and increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart [Fig. 14-31, p. 504]. However, there are limits to the effectiveness of cardiovascular compensation, and if uid loss is too great, the body cannot maintain adequate blood pressure. Typical events that might cause signi cant changes in blood volume include dehydration, hemorrhage, and ingestion of a large quantity of uid. We discuss the integrated compensation for these events in Chapter 20. In addition to the absolute volume of blood in the cardiovascular system, the relative distribution of blood between the arterial and venous sides of the circulation can be an important factor in maintaining arterial blood pressure. Arteries are low-volume vessels that usually contain only about 11% of total blood volume at any one time. Veins, in contrast, are high-volume vessels that hold about 60% of the circulating blood volume at any one time. The veins act as a volume reservoir, holding blood that can be redistributed to the arteries if needed. When arterial blood pressure falls, increased sympathetic activity constricts veins, decreasing their holding capacity and redistributing blood to the arterial side of the circulation. Figure 15-10 * summarizes the four key factors that in uence mean arterial blood pressure.

RESISTANCE IN THE ARTERIOLES As we saw in Chapter 14 [ p. 473], resistance to blood ow (R) is directly proportional to the length of the tubing through which the uid ows (L) and to the viscosity (*) of the uid,


SHOCK Shock is a broad term that refers to generalized, severe circulatory failure. Shock can arise from multiple causes: failure of the heart to maintain normal cardiac output (cardiogenic shock), decreased circulating blood volume (hypovolemic shock), bacterial toxins (septic shock), and miscellaneous causes, such as the massive immune reactions that cause anaphylactic shock. No matter what the cause, the results are similar: low cardiac output and falling peripheral blood pressure. When tissue perfusion can no longer keep up with tissue oxygen demand, the cells begin to sustain damage from inadequate oxygen and from the buildup of metabolic wastes. Once this damage occurs, a positive feedback cycle begins. The shock becomes progressively worse until it becomes irreversible, and the patient dies. The management of shock includes administration of oxygen, uids, and norepinephrine, which stimulates vasoconstriction and increases cardiac output. If the shock arises from a cause that is treatable, such as a bacterial infection, measures must also be taken to remove the precipitating cause.


Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

TABLE 15-2

Chemicals Mediating Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation





Norepinephrine (,-receptors)

Baroreceptor re ex

Sympathetic neurons



Platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction

Neurons, digestive tract, platelets

Paracrine, neurotransmitter


Paracrine mediator

Vascular endothelium



Increases blood pressure in hemorrhage

Posterior pituitary


Angiotensin II

Increases blood pressure

Plasma hormone


Epinephrine (-2-receptors)

Increase blood ow to skeletal muscle, heart, liver

Adrenal medulla



Erection re ex

Parasympathetic neurons


Nitric oxide (NO)

Paracrine mediator



Bradykinin (via NO)

Increases blood ow

Multiple tissues



Increases blood ow to match metabolism

Hypoxic cells


g O2, h CO2, h H*, h K*

Increase blood ow to match metabolism

Cell metabolism



Increases blood ow

Mast cells


Natriuretic peptides (example ANP)

Reduce blood pressure

Atrial myocardium, brain

Hormone, neurotransmitter

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Digestive secretion, relax smooth muscle


Neurotransmitter, neurohormone



and inversely proportional to the fourth power of the tubing radius (r):


R r L +*r4 Normally the length of the systemic circulation and the blood s viscosity are relatively constant. That leaves only the radius of the blood vessels as the primary resistance to blood ow:


R r 1*r4


The arterioles are the main site of variable resistance in the systemic circulation and contribute more than 60% of the total resistance to ow in the system. Resistance in arterioles is variable because of the large amounts of smooth muscle in the arteriolar walls. When the smooth muscle contracts or relaxes, the radius of the arterioles changes. Arteriolar resistance is in uenced by both local and systemic control mechanisms:

Local control of arteriolar resistance matches tissue blood ow to the metabolic needs of the tissue. In the heart and skeletal muscle, these local controls often take precedence over re ex control by the central nervous system. Sympathetic re exes mediated by the CNS maintain mean arterial pressure and govern blood distribution for certain homeostatic needs, such as temperature regulation. Hormones particularly those that regulate salt and water excretion by the kidneys in uence blood pressure by acting directly on the arterioles and by altering autonomic re ex control.

Table 15-2 * lists signi cant chemicals that mediate arteriolar resistance by producing vasoconstriction or vasodilation. In the following sections we look at the factors that in uence blood ow at the tissue level.


Resistance in the Arterioles

Myogenic Autoregulation Automatically Adjusts Blood Flow Vascular smooth muscle has the ability to regulate its own state of contraction, a process called myogenic autoregulation. In the absence of autoregulation, an increase in blood pressure increases blood ow through an arteriole. However, when smooth muscle bers in the wall of the arteriole stretch because of increased blood pressure, the arteriole constricts. This vasoconstriction increases the resistance offered by the arteriole, automatically decreasing blood ow through the vessel. With this simple and direct response to pressure, arterioles regulate their own blood ow. How does myogenic autoregulation work at the cellular level? When vascular smooth muscle cells in arterioles are stretched, mechanically gated Ca2* channels in the muscle membrane open. Calcium entering the cell combines with calmodulin and activates myosin light chain kinase, which in turn increases myosin ATPase activity and crossbridge activity [ p. 435], resulting in contraction.

Paracrines Alter Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction Local control of arteriolar resistance is an important method by which individual tissues regulate their own blood supply. Local regulation is accomplished by paracrines (including the gases O2, CO2, and NO) secreted by the vascular endothelium or by cells to which the arterioles are supplying blood (Tbl. 15-2). The concentrations of many paracrines change as cells become more or less metabolically active. For example, if aerobic


Most hypertension is essential hypertension, which means high blood pressure that cannot be attributed to any particular cause. Since your blood pressure is only mildly elevated, Dr. Cortez tells Kurt, let s see if we can control it with lifestyle changes and a diuretic. You need to reduce salt and fat in your diet, get some exercise, and lose some weight. The diuretic will help your kidneys get rid of excess uid. Looks like you re asking me to turn over a whole new leaf, says Kurt. I ll try it. Question 2: What is the rationale for reducing salt intake and taking a diuretic to control hypertension? (Hint: Salt causes water retention). 513

Arterioles dilate.


Tissue blood flow due to occlusion

Metabolic vasodilators accumulate in ECF.

Arterioles dilate, but occlusion prevents blood flow.

Remove occlusion Resistance creates blood flow. Resistance creates blood flow. O2 and nutrient supply to tissue increases as long as metabolism is increased.

(a) Active hyperemia

* FIGURE 15-11





metabolism increases, tissue O2 levels decrease while CO2 production goes up. Both low O2 and high CO2 dilate arterioles. This vasodilation increases blood ow into the tissue, bringing additional O2 to meet the increased metabolic demand and removing waste CO2 (Fig. 15-11a *). The process in which an increase in blood ow accompanies an increase in metabolic activity is known as active hyperemia [hyper-, above normal * (h)aimia, blood]. If blood ow to a tissue is occluded for a few seconds to a few minutes, O2 levels fall and metabolically produced

Tissue metabolism

Release of metabolic vasodilators into ECF


As vasodilators wash away, arterioles constrict and blood flow returns to normal. (b) Reactive hyperemia

Hyperemia is a locally mediated increase in blood ow.



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

paracrines such as CO2 and H* accumulate in the interstitial uid. Local hypoxia [hypo-, low * oxia, oxygen] causes endothelial cells to synthesize the vasodilator nitric oxide. When blood ow to the tissue resumes, the increased concentrations of NO, CO2, and other paracrines immediately trigger signi cant vasodilation. As the vasodilators are metabolized or washed away by the restored tissue blood ow, the radius of the arteriole gradually returns to normal. An increase in tissue blood ow following a period of low perfusion is known as reactive hyperemia (Fig. 15-11b). NO is probably best known for its role in the male erection re ex (see Ch. 26), and drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction prolong NO activity. Decreases in endogenous NO activity are suspected to play a role in several signi cant conditions, including hypertension and pre-eclampsia, the elevated blood pressure that sometimes occurs during pregnancy. Another vasodilator paracrine is the nucleotide adenosine. If oxygen consumption in heart muscle exceeds the rate at which oxygen is supplied by the blood, myocardial hypoxia results. In response to low tissue oxygen, the myocardial cells release adenosine. Adenosine dilates coronary arterioles in an attempt to bring additional blood ow into the muscle. Not all vasoactive paracrines re ect changes in metabolism. For example, kinins and histamine are potent vasodilators that play a role in in ammation. Serotonin (5-HT), previously mentioned as a CNS neurotransmitter [ p. 277], is also a vasoconstricting paracrine released by activated platelets. When damaged blood vessels activate platelets, the subsequent serotonin-mediated vasoconstriction helps slow blood loss. Serotonin agonists called triptans (for example, sumatriptan) are drugs that bind to 5-HT1 receptors and cause vasoconstriction. These drugs are used to treat migraine headaches, which are caused by inappropriate cerebral vasodilation.



tion re ex of the penis and clitoris. They are controlled indirectly by parasympathetic innervation that causes paracrine release of nitric oxide, resulting in vasodilation. Tonic discharge of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons helps maintain myogenic tone of arterioles (Fig. 15-12 *). Norepinephrine binding to ,-receptors on vascular smooth muscle causes vasoconstriction. If sympathetic release of norepinephrine decreases, the arterioles dilate. If sympathetic stimulation increases, the arterioles constrict. Epinephrine from the adrenal medulla travels through the blood and binds with ,-receptors, reinforcing vasoconstriction. However, ,-receptors have a lower af nity for epinephrine and do not respond as strongly to it as they do to norepinephrine [ p. 394]. Epinephrine also binds to -2-receptors, found on vascular smooth muscle of heart, liver, and skeletal muscle arterioles. These receptors are not innervated and therefore respond primarily to circulating epinephrine [ p. 397]. Activation of vascular -2-receptors by epinephrine causes vasodilation. One way to remember which arterioles have -2-receptors is to think of a ght-or- ight response to a stressful event [ p. 386]. This response includes a generalized increase in sympathetic activity, along with the release of epinephrine. Blood vessels that have -2-receptors respond to epinephrine by vasodilating. Such -2-mediated vasodilation enhances blood ow to the heart, skeletal muscles, and liver, tissues that are active during the ght-or- ight response. (The liver produces glucose for muscle contraction.) During ght or ight, increased sympathetic activity at arteriolar ,-receptors causes vasoconstriction. The increase in resistance diverts blood from nonessential organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, to the skeletal muscles, liver, and heart. The map in Figure 15-13 * summarizes the many factors that in uence blood ow in the body.


6. Resistance to blood ow is determined primarily by which? (a) blood viscosity, (b) blood volume, (c) cardiac output, (d) blood vessel diameter, or (e) blood pressure gradient (+P)

7. The extracellular uid concentration of K* increases in exercising skeletal muscles. What effect does this increase in K* have Answers: p. 545 on blood ow in the muscles?

The Sympathetic Branch Controls Most Vascular Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle contraction in arterioles is regulated by neural and hormonal signals in addition to locally produced paracrines. Among the hormones with signi cant vasoactive properties are atrial natriuretic peptide and angiotensin II (ANG II). These hormones also have signi cant effects on the kidney s excretion of ions and water, as you will learn in Chapter 20. Most systemic arterioles are innervated by sympathetic neurons. A notable exception is arterioles involved in the erec-



After two months, Kurt returns to the doctor s of ce for a checkup. He has lost ve pounds and is walking at least a mile daily, but his blood pressure has not changed. I swear, I m trying to do better, says Kurt, but it s dif cult. Because lifestyle changes and the diuretic have not lowered Kurt s blood pressure, Dr. Cortez adds an antihypertensive drug. This drug, called an ACE inhibitor, blocks production of a chemical called angiotensin II, a powerful vasoconstrictor. This medication should bring your blood pressure back to a normal value. Question 3: Why would blocking the action of a vasoconstrictor lower blood pressure? 513






* FIGURE 15-12

Tonic control of

arteriolar diameter

Arteriole diameter is controlled by tonic release of norepinephrine. Norepinephrine * receptor

Sympathetic neuron

Electrical signals from neuron

Time Moderate signal rate results in a blood vessel of intermediate diameter. Change in signal rate

Norepinephrine release onto * receptors

Norepinephrine release onto * receptors



As the signal rate increases, the blood vessel constricts.

As the signal rate decreases, the blood vessel dialates.


+P/R Resistance to flow

Pressure gradient

Poiseuille s Law

Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

Blood volume



Right atrial pressure (=0)

Flow into arteries


Flow out of arteries

determined by

Total volume

Cardiac output

Arterialvenous distribution Heart rate


Reflex control

Local control




Stroke volume



* FIGURE 15-13

determined by


Passive (FrankStarling law)



FIGURE QUESTION Fill in the autonomic control and local control mechanisms for cardiac output and resistance.


Summary map of factors in uencing peripheral

blood ow 525


Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure



100% of cardiac output


Right heart

8. What happens when epinephrine combines with +1-receptors in the heart? With +2-receptors in the heart? (Hint: in the heart is vague. The heart has multiple tissue types. Which heart tissues possess the different types of +-receptors? [ p. 502]) 9. Skeletal muscle arterioles have both *- and +-receptors on their smooth muscle. Epinephrine can bind to both. Will the arterioles constrict or dilate in response to epinephrine? Explain. Answers: p. 545


10. Use Figure 15-14 to answer these questions. (a) Which tissue has the highest blood ow per unit weight? (b) Which tissue has the least blood ow, regardless of weight? Answers: p. 545

0.70 L/min

55 mL/100 g/min 0.20 L/min

4% Heart 70 mL/100 g/min 27%

Liver and digestive tract

1.35 L/min

100 mL/100 g/min 20%

1.00 L/min Kidneys

400 mL/100 g/min 21%

Skeletal muscle

1.05 L/min

5 mL/100 g/min 0.25 L/min

5% Skin 10 mL/100 g/min 9%

Bone and other tissues

0.45 L/min

3 mL/100 g/min

Flowarteriole r 1*Rarteriole


Left heart


The nervous system s ability to selectively alter blood ow to organs is an important aspect of cardiovascular regulation. The distribution of systemic blood varies according to the metabolic needs of individual organs and is governed by a combination of local control mechanisms and homeostatic re exes. For example, skeletal muscles at rest receive about 20% of cardiac output. During exercise, when the muscles use more oxygen and nutrients, they receive as much as 85%. Blood ow to individual organs is set to some degree by the number and size of arteries feeding the organ. Figure 15-14 * shows how blood is distributed to various organs when the body is at rest. Usually, more than two-thirds of the cardiac output is routed to the digestive tract, liver, muscles, and kidneys. Variations in blood ow to individual tissues are possible because the arterioles in the body are arranged in parallel. In other words, all arterioles receive blood at the same time from the aorta (see Fig. 15-1). Total blood ow through all the arterioles of the body always equals the cardiac output. However, the ow through individual arterioles depends on their resistance (R). The higher the resistance in an arteriole, the lower the blood ow through it. If an arteriole constricts and resistance increases, blood ow through that arteriole decreases (Fig. 15-15 *):





In other words, blood is diverted from high-resistance arterioles to lower-resistance arterioles. You might say that blood traveling through the arterioles takes the path of least resistance. In a tissue, blood ow into individual capillaries can be regulated by the precapillary sphincters described earlier in the chapter. When these small bands of smooth muscle at metarteriole-capillary junctions constrict, they restrict blood ow into the capillaries (Fig. 15-16 *). When the sphincters dilate, blood ow into the capillaries increases. This mechanism provides an additional site for local control of blood ow.

Cardiac output = 5.0 L/min

Q * FIGURE 15-14 Blood

FIGURE QUESTION What is the rate of blood flow through the lungs?

Distribution of blood in the body at rest.

ow to the major organs is represented in three ways: as a

percentage of total

ow, as volume per 100 grams of tissue per

minute, and as an absolute rate of ow (in L/min).

EXCHANGE AT THE CAPILLARIES The transport of materials around the body is only part of the function of the cardiovascular system. Once blood reaches the capillaries, the plasma and the cells exchange materials across the thin capillary walls. Most cells are located within 0.1 mm

Exchange at the Capillaries A

1 L/min


1 L/min


1 L/min


1 L/min




4 L/min

Total flow:

4 L/min

(a) Blood flow through four identical vessels (A D) is equal. Total flow into vessels equals total flow out.


11/4 L/min


1/ L/min 4


11/4 L/min


11/4 L/min

(a) When precapillary sphincters are relaxed, blood flows through all capillaries in the bed.

Precapillary sphincters constricted

4 L/min

Total flow unchanged:


Precapillary sphincters relaxed

4 L/min

(b) When vessel B constricts, resistance of B increases and flow through B decreases. Flow diverted from B is divided among the lower-resistance vessels A, C, and D.

* FIGURE 15-15

Blood ow through individual blood vessels is determined by the vessel s resistance to ow.

(b) If precapillary sphincters constrict, blood flow bypasses capillaries completely and flows through metarterioles.

* FIGURE 15-16 of the nearest capillary, and diffusion over this short distance proceeds rapidly. The capillary density in any given tissue is directly related to the metabolic activity of the tissue s cells. Tissues with a higher metabolic rate require more oxygen and nutrients. Those tissues have more capillaries per unit area. Subcutaneous tissue and cartilage have the lowest capillary density. Muscles and glands have the highest. By one estimate, the adult human body has about 50,000 miles of capillaries, with a total exchange surface area of more than 6300 m2, nearly the surface area of two football elds. Capillaries have the thinnest walls of all the blood vessels, composed of a single layer of attened endothelial cells supported on a basal lamina (Fig. 15-2). The diameter of a capillary is barely larger than that of a red blood cell, forcing the RBCs to pass through in single le. Cell junctions between the endothelial cells vary from tissue to tissue and help determine the leakiness of the capillary. The most common capillaries are continuous capillaries, whose endothelial cells are joined to one another with leaky junctions (Fig. 15-17a *). These capillaries are found in muscle, connective tissue, and neural tissue. The continuous capillaries of the brain have evolved to form the blood-brain barrier, with tight junctions that protect neural tissue from toxins that may be present in the bloodstream [ p. 303]. Fenestrated capillaries [fenestra, window] have large pores (fenestrae) that allow high volumes of uid to pass rap-

Precapillary sphincters

idly between the plasma and interstitial uid (Fig. 15-17b). These capillaries are found primarily in the kidney and the intestine, where they are associated with absorptive transporting epithelia. Three tissues the bone marrow, the liver, and the spleen do not have typical capillaries. Instead they have modi ed vessels called sinusoids that are as much as ve times wider than a capillary. The sinusoid endothelium has fenestrations, and there may be gaps between the cells as well. Sinusoids are found in locations where blood cells and plasma proteins need to cross the endothelium to enter the blood. Figure 16-4c, Focus on Bone Marrow, shows blood cells leaving the bone marrow by squeezing between endothelial cells. In the liver, the sinusoidal endothelium lacks a basal lamina, which allows even more free exchange between plasma and interstitial uid.

Velocity of Blood Flow Is Lowest in the Capillaries In Chapter 14 you learned that at a constant ow rate, velocity of ow is higher in a smaller vessel than in a larger vessel [ p. 475]. From this, you might conclude that blood moves very rapidly through the capillaries because they are the smallest blood vessels. However, the primary determinant for velocity is not the diameter of an individual capillary but the total cross-sectional area of all the capillaries.



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure


Fenestrated pores

Endothelial cells beneath basement membrane

Basement membrane (cut)

Endothelial cell junctions allow water and small dissolved solutes to pass.

Transcytosis vesicles Fenestrations or pores

Basement membrane

Transcytosis vesicles

Transcytosis brings proteins and macromolecules across endothelium.

(a) Continuous capillaries have leaky junctions.

* FIGURE 15-17

Some vesicles may fuse to create temporary channels.

Endothelial cell junction Basement membrane (b) Fenestrated capillaries have large pores.

The two types of capillaries

What is total cross-sectional area? Imagine circles representing cross sections of all the capillaries placed edge to edge, and you have it. For the capillaries, those circles would cover an area much larger than the total cross-sectional areas of all the arteries and veins combined. Therefore, because total crosssectional area of the capillaries is so large, the velocity of ow through them is low. Figure 15-18 * compares cross-sectional areas of different parts of the systemic circulation with the velocity of blood ow in each part. The fastest ow is in the relatively small-diameter arterial system. The slowest ow is in the capillaries and venules, which collectively have the largest cross-sectional area. The low velocity of ow through capillaries is a useful characteristic that allows enough time for diffusion to go to equilibrium [ p. 136].

across the thin endothelium. Their plasma concentrations reach equilibrium with the interstitial uid and cells by the time blood reaches the venous end of the capillary. In capillaries with leaky cell junctions, most small dissolved solutes can diffuse freely between the cells or through the fenestrae. In continuous capillaries, blood cells and most plasma proteins are unable to pass through the junctions between endothelial cells. However, we know that proteins do move from plasma to interstitial uid and vice versa. In most capillaries, larger molecules (including selected proteins) are transported across the endothelium by transcytosis [ p. 157]. The endothelial cell surface appears dotted with numerous caveolae and noncoated pits that become vesicles for transcytosis. It appears that in some capillaries, chains of vesicles fuse to create open channels that extend across the endothelial cell (Fig. 15-17).

Most Capillary Exchange Takes Place by Diffusion and Transcytosis

Capillary Filtration and Absorption Take Place by Bulk Flow

Exchange between the plasma and interstitial uid takes place either by movement between endothelial cells (the paracellular pathway) or by movement through the cells (endothelial transport). Smaller dissolved solutes and gases move by diffusion between or through the cells, depending on their lipid solubility [ p. 139]. Larger solutes and proteins move mostly by vesicular transport [ p. 152]. The diffusion rate for dissolved solutes is determined primarily by the concentration gradient between the plasma and the interstitial uid. Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse freely

A third form of capillary exchange is bulk ow into and out of the capillary. Bulk ow refers to the mass movement of uid as the result of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure gradients. If the direction of bulk ow is into the capillary, the uid movement is called absorption. If the direction of ow is out of the capillary, the uid movement is known as ltration. Capillary ltration is caused by hydrostatic pressure that forces uid out of the capillary through leaky cell junctions. As an analogy, think of garden soaker hoses whose perforated walls allow water to ooze out.


Filtration (Pout) Absorption (


Net pressure

hydrostatic P


colloid osmotic P hydrostatic P Pout




colloid osmotic P

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000

Venae cavae







Aorta Velocity of blood flow (cm/sec)

Most capillaries show a transition from net ltration at the arterial end to net absorption at the venous end. There are some exceptions to this rule, though. Capillaries in part of the kidney lter uid along their entire length, for instance, and some capillaries in the intestine are only absorptive, picking up digested nutrients that have been transported into the interstitial uid from the lumen of the intestine. Two forces regulate bulk ow in the capillaries. One is hydrostatic pressure, the lateral pressure component of blood ow that pushes uid out through the capillary pores [ p. 472], and the other is osmotic pressure [ p. 159]. These forces are sometimes called Starling forces, after the English physiologist E. H. Starling, who rst described them (the same Starling as in the Frank-Starling law of the heart). Osmotic pressure is determined by solute concentration of a compartment. The main solute difference between plasma and interstitial uid is due to proteins, which are present in the plasma but mostly absent from interstitial uid. The osmotic pressure created by the presence of these proteins is known as colloid osmotic pressure ( ), also called oncotic pressure. Colloid osmotic pressure is not equivalent to the total osmotic pressure in a capillary. It is simply a measure of the osmotic pressure created by proteins. Because the capillary endothelium is freely permeable to ions and other solutes in the plasma and interstitial uid, these other solutes do not contribute to the osmotic gradient. Colloid osmotic pressure is higher in the plasma ( cap 25 mm Hg) than in the interstitial uid ( IF 0 mm). Therefore, the osmotic gradient favors water movement by osmosis from the interstitial uid into the plasma, represented by the red vertical arrows in Figure 15-19a *. For the purposes of our discussion, colloid osmotic pressure is constant along the length of the capillary, at cap 25 mm Hg. Capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pcap), by contrast, decreases along the length of the capillary as energy is lost to friction. Average values for capillary hydrostatic pressure, shown in Figure 15-19a, are 32 mm Hg at the arterial end of a capillary and 15 mm Hg at the venous end. The hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial uid (PIF) is very low, and so we consider it to be essentially zero. This means that water movement due to hydrostatic pressure is directed out of the capillary, as denoted by the blue vertical arrows in Figure 15-19a, with the pressure gradient decreasing from the arterial end to the venous end. Net uid ow across the capillary is determined by the difference between the hydrostatic pressure gradient ( P) favoring ltration and the colloid osmotic pressure gradient favoring absorption:

Total cross-sectional area (cm2)

Exchange at the Capillaries

35 28

Velocity of blood flow depends on the total cross-sectional area.

21 14 7 0


GRAPH QUESTION (a) Is velocity directly proportional to or inversely proportional to cross-sectional area? (b) What effect does changing only the cross-sectional area have on flow rate?

* FIGURE 15-18

Velocity of ow depends on total crosssectional area of the vessels.

15 If we assume that the interstitial hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures are zero, as discussed above, then we see the following values at the arterial end of a capillary: Net pressurearterial end

(32 mm Hg 32



25 mm Hg

25 mm Hg)

7 mm Hg

At the arterial end Pout is greater than in, so the net pressure is 7 mm Hg of ltration pressure. At the venous end, where capillary hydrostatic pressure is less: Net Pvenous end

(15 mm Hg 15


25 mm Hg


25 mm Hg)

10 mm Hg

Here in is greater than Pout, and the net pressure is 10 mm Hg favoring absorption. (A negative net pressure indicates absorption.) Fluid movement down the length of a capillary is shown in Figure 15-19a. At the arterial end there is net ltration, and at the venous end there is net absorption. If the point at which ltration equals absorption occurred in the middle of the capillary, there would be no net movement of uid. All volume


Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure Net pressure = hydrostatic pressure

colloid osmotic pressure Hydrostatic pressure Pcap forces fluid out of the capillary.

Pcap 32 mm Hg cap

-25 mm Hg 15 mm Hg

-25 mm Hg

7200 L/day

Pcap =

Pcap >

Colloid osmotic pressure of proteins within the capillary pulls fluid into the capillary.

> Pcap

Net filtration Net absorption Net flow out = 3 L/day


Pcap = Capillary hydrostatic pressure (a) Filtration in systemic capillaries

= Colloid osmotic pressure

Venule Arteriole

Net filtration

Net absorption

The excess water and solutes that filter out of the capillary are picked up by the lymph vessels and returned to the circulation.


Lymph vessels

Suppose that the hydrostatic pressure Pcap at the arterial end of a capillary increases from 32 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg. If Pcap remains 15 mm Hg at the venous end, does net filtration in this capillary decrease, increase, or stay the same?

(b) Relationship between capillaries and lymph vessels

* FIGURE 15-19

Fluid exchange at a capillary. A net average of 3 L /day of

uid lters out of the capillaries.

that was ltered at the arterial end would be absorbed at the venous end. However, ltration is usually greater than absorption, resulting in bulk ow of uid out of the capillary into the interstitial space. By most estimates, that bulk ow amounts to about 3 liters per day, which is the equivalent of the entire plasma volume! If this ltered uid could not be returned to the plasma, the blood would turn into a sludge of blood cells and proteins. Restoring uid lost from the capillaries to the circulatory system is one of the functions of the lymphatic system, which we discuss next.




11. A person with liver disease loses the ability to synthesize plasma proteins. What happens to the colloid osmotic pressure of his blood? What happens to the balance between ltration and absorption in his capillaries?

12. Why did this discussion refer to the colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma rather than the osmolarity of the plasma? Answers: p. 545

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The vessels of the lymphatic system interact with three other physiological systems: the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, and the immune system. Functions of the lymphatic system include (1) returning uid and proteins ltered out of the capillaries to the circulatory system, (2) picking up fat absorbed at the small intestine and transferring it to the circulatory system, and (3) serving as a lter to help capture and destroy foreign pathogens. In this discussion we focus on the role of the lymphatic system in uid transport. We discuss the other two functions in connection with digestion (Ch. 21) and immunity (Ch. 24). The lymphatic system allows the one-way movement of interstitial uid from the tissues into the circulation. Blind-end lymph vessels (lymph capillaries) lie close to all blood capillaries except those in the kidney and central nervous system (Fig. 15-19b). The smallest lymph vessels are composed of a single layer of attened endothelium that is even thinner than the capillary endothelium.

The Lymphatic System Thoracic (left lymph) duct Lymphatics of upper limb Cervical lymph nodes Right lymph duct Thymus Axillary lymph nodes

Thoracic duct

Lymphatics of mammary gland

Lumbar lymph nodes


Pelvic lymph nodes Inguinal lymph nodes

Lymphatics of lower limb

Blind-end lymph capillaries in the tissues remove fluid and filtered proteins.

Lymph fluid empties into the venous circulation.

* FIGURE 15-20

The lymphatic system.

The walls of these tiny lymph vessels are anchored to the surrounding connective tissue by bers that hold the thinwalled vessels open. Large gaps between cells allow uid, interstitial proteins, and particulate matter such as bacteria to be swept into the lymph vessels, also called lymphatics, by bulk ow. Once inside the lymphatics, this clear uid is called simply lymph. Lymph vessels in the tissues join one another to form larger lymphatic vessels that progressively increase in size (Fig. 15-20 *). These vessels have a system of semilunar valves,


similar to valves in the venous circulation. The largest lymph ducts empty into the venous circulation just under the collarbones, where the left and right subclavian veins join the internal jugular veins. At intervals along the way, vessels enter lymph nodes, bean-shaped nodules of tissue with a brous outer capsule and an internal collection of immunologically active cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages. The lymphatic system has no single pump like the heart. Lymph ow depends primarily on waves of contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the larger lymph vessels. Flow is aided by contractile bers in the endothelial cells, by the oneway valves, and by external compression created by skeletal muscles. The skeletal muscle pump plays a signi cant role in lymph ow, as you know if you have ever injured a wrist or ankle. An immobilized limb frequently swells from the accumulation of uid in the interstitial space, a condition known as edema [oidema, swelling]. Patients with edema in an injured limb are told to elevate the limb above the level of the heart so gravity assists lymph ow back to the blood. An important reason for returning ltered uid to the circulation is the recycling of plasma proteins. The body must maintain a low protein concentration in the interstitial uid because colloid osmotic pressure is the only signi cant force that opposes capillary hydrostatic pressure. If proteins move from the plasma to the interstitial uid, the osmotic pressure gradient that opposes ltration decreases. With less opposition to capillary hydrostatic pressure, additional uid moves into the interstitial space. In ammation is an example of a situation in which the balance of colloid osmotic and hydrostatic pressures is disrupted. Histamine released in the in ammatory response makes capillary walls leakier and allows proteins to escape from the plasma into the interstitial uid. The local swelling that accompanies a region of in ammation is an example of edema caused by redistribution of proteins from the plasma to the interstitial uid.

Edema Results from Alterations in Capillary Exchange Edema is a sign that normal exchange between the circulatory system and the lymphatics has been disrupted. Edema usually arises from one of two causes: (1) inadequate drainage of lymph or (2) blood capillary ltration that greatly exceeds capillary absorption. Inadequate lymph drainage occurs with obstruction of the lymphatic system, particularly at the lymph nodes. Parasites, cancer, or brotic tissue growth caused by therapeutic radiation can block the movement of lymph through the system. For example, elephantiasis is a chronic condition marked by gross enlargement of the legs and lower appendages when parasites block the lymph vessels. Lymph drainage may also be impaired



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure



Another few weeks go by, and Kurt again returns to Dr. Cortez for a checkup. Kurt s blood pressure is nally closer to the normal range and has been averaging 135/87. But, Doc, can you give me something for this dry, hacking cough I ve been having? I don t feel bad, but it s driving me nuts. Dr. Cortez explains that a dry cough is an occasional side effect of taking ACE inhibitors. It is more of a nuisance than anything else, but let s change your medicine. I d like to try you on a calcium channel blocker instead of the ACE inhibitor. Question 4: How do calcium channel blockers lower blood pressure? 513






if lymph nodes are removed during surgery, a common procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Factors that disrupt the normal balance between capillary ltration and absorption include: 1.



An increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure. Increased hydrostatic pressure is usually indicative of elevated venous pressure. An increase in arterial pressure is generally not noticeable at the capillaries because of autoregulation of pressure in the arterioles. One common cause of increased venous pressure is heart failure, a condition in which one ventricle loses pumping power and can no longer pump all the blood sent to it by the other ventricle (see Ch. 14 Concept Check #30 on p. 500). For example, if the right ventricle begins to fail but the left ventricle maintains its cardiac output, blood accumulates in the systemic circulation. Blood pressure rises rst in the right atrium, then in the veins and capillaries draining into the right side of the heart. When capillary hydrostatic pressure increases, ltration greatly exceeds absorption, leading to edema. A decrease in plasma protein concentration. Plasma protein concentrations may decrease as a result of severe malnutrition or liver failure. The liver is the main site for plasma protein synthesis. An increase in interstitial proteins. As discussed earlier, excessive leakage of proteins out of the blood decreases the colloid osmotic pressure gradient and increases net capillary ltration.

On occasion, changes in the balance between ltration and absorption help the body maintain homeostasis. For example, if arterial blood pressure falls, capillary hydrostatic pressure also decreases. This change increases uid absorption. If blood pressure falls low enough, there is net absorption in the capillaries rather than net ltration. This passive mechanism helps

* FIGURE 15-21

Ascites (abdominal edema) in a child with protein malnutrition. The African word for protein malnutrition is kwashiorkor.

maintain blood volume in situations in which blood pressure is very low, such as hemorrhage or severe dehydration.




13. If the left ventricle fails to pump normally, blood backs up into what set of blood vessels? Where would you expect edema to occur? 14. Malnourished children who have inadequate protein in their diet often have grotesquely swollen bellies. This condition, which can be described as edema of the abdomen, is called ascites (Fig. 15-21 *). Use the information you have just learned about capillary ltration to explain why malnutrition Answers: p. 545 causes ascites.

REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE The central nervous system coordinates the re ex control of blood pressure. The main integrating center is in the medulla oblongata. Because of the dif culty of studying neural networks in the brain, however, we still know relatively little about the nuclei, neurotransmitters, and interneurons of the medullary cardiovascular control center.

The Baroreceptor Re ex Controls Blood Pressure The primary function of the cardiovascular control center is to maintain adequate blood ow to the brain and heart. Sensory input to this integrating center comes from a variety of peripheral sensory receptors. Stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors known as baroreceptors are located in the walls of the carotid arteries and aorta (Fig. 15-22 *), where they can

Regulation of Blood Pressure


Medullary cardiovascular control center

Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons

Carotid and aortic baroreceptors

Sympathetic neurons

SA node






Name the neurotransmitters and receptors for each of the target tissues.

* FIGURE 15-22



Sensory receptor

Integrating center

Efferent path


Components of the baroreceptor re ex

monitor the pressure of blood owing to the brain (carotid baroreceptors) and to the body (aortic baroreceptors). The carotid and aortic baroreceptors are tonically active stretch receptors that re action potentials continuously at normal blood pressures. The primary re ex pathway for homeostatic control of blood pressure is the baroreceptor re ex. When increased blood pressure in the arteries stretches the baroreceptor membrane, ring rate of the receptor increases. If blood pressure falls, the ring rate of the receptor decreases. Action potentials from the baroreceptors travel to the medullary cardiovascular control center via sensory neurons. The cardiovascular control center integrates the sensory input and initiates an appropriate response. The response of the baroreceptor re ex is quite rapid: changes in cardiac output and peripheral resistance occur within two heartbeats of the stimulus. Efferent output from the cardiovascular control center is carried via both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic neurons. Peripheral resistance is under tonic sympathetic control, with increased sympathetic discharge causing vasoconstriction.

Heart function is regulated by antagonistic control. Increased sympathetic activity increases heart rate at the SA node, shortens conduction time through the AV node, and enhances the force of myocardial contraction. Increased parasympathetic activity slows heart rate but has only a small effect on ventricular contraction. The baroreceptor re ex is summarized in Figure 15-23 *. Baroreceptors increase their ring rate as blood pressure increases, activating the medullary cardiovascular control center. In response, the cardiovascular control center increases parasympathetic activity and decreases sympathetic activity to slow down the heart. When heart rate falls, cardiac output falls. In the circulation, decreased sympathetic activity causes dilation of the arterioles, allowing more blood to ow out of the arteries. The combination of reduced cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance lowers the mean arterial blood pressure. Cardiovascular function can be modulated by input from peripheral receptors other than the baroreceptors. For example, arterial chemoreceptors activated by low blood oxygen levels increase cardiac output. The cardiovascular control center also has reciprocal communication with centers in the medulla that control breathing.



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

Blood pressure


Firing of baroreceptors in carotid arteries and aorta

Stimulus Receptor Afferent pathway

Sensory neurons

Integrating center Efferent pathway Effector

Cardiovascular control center in medulla oblongata

Tissue response Systemic response

Sympathetic output

Parasympathetic output more ACh on muscarinic receptor

less NE released *-receptor


Arteriolar smooth muscle

Ventricular myocardium



SA node

Force of contraction

Peripheral resistance

Heart rate

Cardiac output

Blood pressure

* FIGURE 15-23

Negative feedback

The baroreceptor re ex: the response to increased blood pressure

The integration of function between the respiratory and circulatory systems is adaptive. If tissues require more oxygen, it is supplied by the cardiovascular system working in tandem with the respiratory system. Consequently, increases in breathing rate are usually accompanied by increases in cardiac output. Blood pressure is also subject to modulation by higher brain centers, such as the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus mediates vascular responses involved in body temperature regulation (see Ch. 22) and for the ghtor- ight response. Learned and emotional responses may originate in the cerebral cortex and be expressed by cardiovascular responses such as blushing and fainting.

One such re ex is vasovagal syncope, which may be triggered in some people by the sight of blood or a hypodermic needle. (Recall Anthony s experience at the beginning of this chapter). In this pathway, increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity slow heart rate and cause widespread vasodilation. Cardiac output and peripheral resistance both decrease, triggering a precipitous drop in blood pressure. With insuf cient blood to the brain, the individual faints. Regulation of blood pressure in the cardiovascular system is closely tied to regulation of body uid balance by the kidneys. Certain hormones secreted from the heart act on the kidneys, while hormones secreted from the kidneys act on the

Cardiovascular Disease

heart and blood vessels. Together, the heart and kidneys play a major role in maintaining homeostasis of body uids, the subject of Chapter 20. The overlap of these systems is an excellent example of the integration of organ system function.






16. In the movie Jurassic Park, Dr. Ian Malcolm must ee from the T. rex. Draw a re ex map showing the cardiovascular response to his ght-or- ight situation. (Hints: What is the stimulus? Fear is integrated in the limbic system). Answers: p. 545


15. Baroreceptors have stretch-sensitive ion channels in their cell membrane. Increased pressure stretches the receptor cell membrane, opens the channels, and initiates action potentials. What ion probably ows through these channels and in Answers: p. 545 which direction (into or out of the cell)?

Orthostatic Hypotension Triggers the Baroreceptor Re ex The baroreceptor re ex functions every morning when you get out of bed. When you are lying at, gravitational forces are distributed evenly up and down the length of your body, and blood is distributed evenly throughout the circulation. When you stand up, gravity causes blood to pool in the lower extremities. This pooling creates an instantaneous decrease in venous return. As a result, less blood is in the ventricles at the beginning of the next contraction. Cardiac output falls from 5 L/min to 3 L/min, causing arterial blood pressure to decrease. This decrease in blood pressure upon standing is known as orthostatic hypotension [orthos, upright * statikos, to stand]. Orthostatic hypotension normally triggers the baroreceptor re ex. The carotid and aortic baroreceptors respond to the fall in arterial blood pressure by decreasing their ring rate (Fig. 15-24 *). Diminished sensory input into the cardiovascular control center increases sympathetic activity and decreases parasympathetic activity. As a result of autonomic changes, heart rate and force of contraction increase while arterioles and veins constrict. The combination of increased cardiac output and increased peripheral resistance increases mean arterial pressure and restores it to normal within two heartbeats. The skeletal muscle pump also contributes to the recovery by enhancing venous return when abdominal and leg muscles contract to maintain an upright position. The baroreceptor re ex is not always effective, however. For example, during extended bed rest or in the zero-gravity conditions of space ights, blood from the lower extremities is distributed evenly throughout the body rather than pooled in the lower extremities. This even distribution raises arterial pressure, triggering the kidneys to excrete what is perceived as excess uid. Over the course of three days, excretion of water leads to a 12% decrease in blood volume. When the person nally gets out of bed or returns to earth, gravity again causes blood to pool in the legs. Orthostatic hypotension occurs, and the baroreceptors attempt to compensate. In this instance, however, the cardiovascular system is unable to restore normal pressure because of the loss of blood volume. As a result, the individual may become dizzy or even faint from reduced delivery of oxygen to the brain.


CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Disorders of the heart and blood vessels, such as heart attacks and strokes, play a role in more than half of all deaths in the United States. The American Heart Association predicted that in 2008 cardiovascular diseases will cost people in the United States more than $448.5 billion in medical expenses and lost wages. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is re ected in the tremendous amount of research being done worldwide. The scienti c investigations range from large-scale clinical studies that track cardiovascular disease in thousands of people, such as the Framingham (Massachusetts) Heart Study, to experiments at the cellular and molecular levels. Much of the research at the cellular and molecular levels is designed to expand our understanding of both normal and abnormal function in the heart and blood vessels. Scientists are studying a virtual alphabet soup of transporters and regulators. Some of these molecules, such as adenosine, endothelin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phospholamban, and nitric oxide, you have studied here and in Chapter 14. As we increase our knowledge of cardiovascular function, we also begin to understand the actions of drugs that have been used for centuries. A classic example is the cardiac glycoside digitalis [ p. 503], whose mechanism of action was explained when scientists discovered the role of Na*-K*-ATPase. It is a sobering thought to realize that for many therapeutic drugs, we know what they do without fully understanding how they do it.

Risk Factors Include Smoking and Obesity As you learned in Chapter 1, conducting and interpreting research on humans is a complicated endeavor in part because of the dif culty of designing well-controlled experiments [ p. 11]. The economic and social importance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) makes it the focus of many studies each year as researchers try to improve treatments and prediction algorithms. (An algorithm is a set of rules or a sequence of steps used to solve a problem). We can predict the likelihood that a person will develop cardiovascular disease during his or her lifetime by examining the various risk factors that the person possesses. The list of risk factors described here is the result of following the medical histories of thousands of people for many years in studies such as the Framingham Heart Study. As more data become available, additional risk factors may be added. Risk factors are generally divided into those over which the person has no control and those that can be controlled.



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

Mean arterial blood pressure upon standing

Firing of carotid and aortic baroreceptors


Cardiovascular control center in medulla

Sympathetic output


Parasympathetic output

Arterioles and veins



Force of contraction

Peripheral resistance

Q * FIGURE 15-24





At each , name the neurotransmitter and type of neurotransmitter receptor.


SA node

Heart rate

Cardiac output

Blood pressure to normal

Negative feedback

The baroreceptor re ex: the response to orthostatic

hypotension Medical intervention is aimed at reducing risk from the controllable factors. The risk factors that cannot be controlled include sex, age, and a family history of early cardiovascular disease. As noted earlier in the chapter, coronary heart disease (CHD) is a form of cardiovascular disease in which the coronary arteries become blocked by cholesterol deposits and blood clots. Up until middle age, men have a 3 4 times higher risk of developing CHD than do women. After age 55, when most women have entered menopause, the death rate from CHD equalizes in men and women. In general, the risk of coronary heart disease increases as people age. Heredity also plays an im-

portant role. If a person has one or more close relatives with this condition, his or her risk is elevated. Risk factors that can be controlled include cigarette smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and untreated hypertension. In the United States, smoking-related illnesses are the primary preventable cause of death, followed by conditions related to overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity and obesity have been steadily increasing in the United States since 1991, and currently nearly 70% of U.S. adults are either overweight or obese. Two risk factors for cardiovascular disease diabetes mellitus and elevated blood lipids have both an uncontrollable

Cardiovascular Disease


DIABETES AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Having diabetes is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, and almost twothirds of people with diabetes will die from cardiovascular problems. In diabetes, cells that cannot use glucose turn to fats and proteins for their energy. The body breaks down fat into fatty acids [ p. 115] and dumps them into the blood. Plasma cholesterol levels are also elevated. When LDL-C remains in the blood, the excess is ingested by macrophages, starting a series of events that lead to atherosclerosis. Because of the pivotal role that LDL-C plays in atherosclerosis, many forms of therapy, ranging from dietary modi cation and exercise to drugs, are aimed at lowering LDL-C levels. Left untreated, blockage of small and medium-sized blood vessels in the lower extremities can lead to loss of sensation and gangrene (tissue death) in the feet. Atherosclerosis in larger vessels causes heart attacks and strokes. To learn more about diabetes and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, visit the web sites of the American Diabetes Association ( and the American Heart Association (

genetic component and a modi able lifestyle component. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that puts a person at risk for developing coronary heart disease by contributing to the development of atherosclerosis ( hardening of the arteries ), in which fatty deposits form inside arterial blood vessels. Elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides also lead to atherosclerosis. The increasing prevalence of these risk factors has created an epidemic in the United States, with one in every 2.8 deaths in 2004 attributed to all forms of cardiovascular disease.

Atherosclerosis Is an In ammatory Process Coronary heart disease accounts for the majority of cardiovascular disease deaths and is the single largest killer of Americans, both men and women. Let s look at the underlying cause of this disease: atherosclerosis. The role of elevated blood cholesterol in the development of atherosclerosis is well established. Cholesterol, like other lipids, is not very soluble in aqueous solutions, such as the plasma. Therefore, when cholesterol in the diet is absorbed from the digestive tract, it combines with lipoproteins to make it more soluble. (Chapters 21 and 22 discuss the details of cholesterol digestion, absorption, and metabolism). Multiple lipoproteins associate with cholesterol, but clinicians generally are concerned with two: those found in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) complexes and those found


in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) complexes. HDL-C is the more desirable form of blood cholesterol because high levels of HDL are associated with lower risk of heart attacks. (Memory aid: H in HDL stands for healthy. ) LDL-C is sometimes called bad cholesterol because elevated plasma LDL-C levels are associated with coronary heart disease. (Remember this by associating L with lethal. ) Normal levels of LDL-C are not bad, however, because LDL is necessary for cholesterol transport into cells. LDL-C s binding site a protein called apoB combines with an LDL receptor found in clathrin-coated pits on the cell membrane, and the receptor-LDL-C complex is brought into the cell by endocytosis [Fig. 5-21, p. 153]. The LDL receptor recycles to the cell membrane, and the endosome fuses with a lysosome. LDL-C s proteins are digested to amino acids, and the freed cholesterol is used to make cell membranes or steroid hormones. Although LDL is needed for cellular uptake of cholesterol, excess levels of plasma LDL-C lead to atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells lining the arteries transport LDL-C into the extracellular space so that it accumulates just under the intima. There, macrophages ingest cholesterol and other lipids to become lipid- lled foam cells (Fig. 15-25b *). Cytokines released by the macrophages promote smooth muscle cell division. This early-stage lesion [laesio, injury] is called a fatty streak. As the condition progresses, the lipid core grows, and smooth muscle cells reproduce, forming bulging plaques that protrude into the lumen of the artery. In the advanced stages of atherosclerosis, the plaques develop hard, calci ed regions and brous collagen caps (Fig. 15-25c). The mechanism by which calcium carbonate is deposited is still being investigated. Scientists once believed that the occlusion (blockage) of coronary blood vessels by large plaques that triggered blood clots was the primary cause of heart attacks, but that model has been revised. The new model indicates that blood clot formation on plaques is more dependent on the structure of a plaque than on its size. Stable plaques have thick brous caps that separate the lipid core from the blood and do not activate platelets. Vulnerable plaques have thin brous caps that are more likely to rupture, exposing collagen and activating platelets that initiate a blood clot (thrombus) (Fig. 15-25d). Atherosclerosis is now considered to be an in ammatory process in which macrophages release enzymes that convert stable plaques to vulnerable plaques. If a clot blocks blood ow to the heart muscle, a heart attack (myocardial infarction) results. Blocked blood ow in a coronary artery cuts off the oxygen supply to myocardial cells supplied by that artery. The oxygen-starved cells must then rely on anaerobic metabolism [ p. 109], which produces lactic acid * (H ). As ATP production declines, the contractile cells are unable to pump Ca* out of the cell. The combination of unusually high Ca* and H* concentrations in the cytosol closes gap junctions in the damaged cells. Closure electrically isolates the damaged cells so that they no longer contract, and it forces action potentials to nd an alternate route from cell to cell. If the



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

Endothelial cells Elastic connective tissue Smooth muscle cells

(a) Normal arterial wall LDL cholesterol accumulates between the endothelium and connective tissue and is oxidized. Macrophages ingest cholesterol and become foam cells. Smooth muscle cells, attracted by macrophage cytokines, begin to divide and take up cholesterol. (b) Fatty streak

A lipid core accumulates beneath the endothelium. Fibrous scar tissue forms to wall off the lipid core. Smooth muscle cells divide and contribute to thickening of the intima. Calcifications are deposited within the plaque.

(c) Stable fibrous plaque

Platelets that are exposed to collagen activate and initiate a blood clot. Macrophages may release enzymes that dissolve collagen and convert stable plaques to unstable plaques.

* FIGURE 15-25 (d) Vulnerable plaque

damaged area of myocardium is large, the disruption can lead to an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) and potentially result in cardiac arrest or death.

Hypertension Represents a Failure of Homeostasis One controllable risk factor for cardiovascular disease is hypertension chronically elevated blood pressure, with

The development of atherosclerotic plaques systolic pressures greater than 130 140 mm Hg or diastolic pressures greater than 80 90 mm Hg. Hypertension is a common disease in the United States and is one of the most common reasons for visits to physicians and for the use of prescription drugs. High blood pressure is associated with increasing risk of CVD: the risk doubles for each 20/10 mm Hg increase in blood pressure over a baseline value of 115/75 (Fig. 15-26 *).

Cardiovascular Disease




In clinical studies, it is sometimes dif cult to determine whether a factor that has a positive correlation with a disease functions in a cause-effect relationship or represents a simple association. For example, two factors associated with higher incidence of heart disease are C-reactive protein and homocysteine. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a molecule involved in the body s response to in ammation. In one study, women who had elevated blood CRP levels were more than twice as likely to have a serious cardiovascular problem as women with low CRP. Does this nding mean that CRP is causing cardiovascular disease? Or could it simply be a marker that can be used clinically to predict who is more likely to develop cardiovascular complications, such as a heart attack or stroke? Similarly, elevated homocysteine levels are associated with an increased incidence of CVD. (Homocysteine is an amino acid that takes part in a complicated metabolic pathway that also requires folate and vitamin B12 as cofactors). Should physicians routinely measure homocysteine along with cholesterol? Currently there is little clinical evidence to show that reducing either CRP or homocysteine decreases a person s risk of developing CVD. If these two markers are not indicators for modi able risk factors, should a patient s insurance be asked to pay for the tests used to detect them?

More than 90% of all patients with hypertension are considered to have essential (or primary) hypertension, with no clearcut cause other than heredity. Cardiac output is usually normal in these people, and their elevated blood pressure appears to be associated with increased peripheral resistance. Some investigators have speculated that the increased resistance may be due to a lack of nitric oxide, the locally produced vasodilator formed by endothelial cells in the arterioles. In the remaining 5 10% of hypertensive cases, the cause is more apparent, and the hypertension is considered to be secondary to an underlying pathology. For instance, the cause might be an endocrine disorder that causes uid retention. A key feature of hypertension from all causes is adaptation of the carotid and aortic baroreceptors to higher pressure, with subsequent down-regulation of their activity. Without input from the baroreceptors, the cardiovascular control center interprets the high blood pressure as normal, and no re ex reduction of pressure occurs. Hypertension is a risk factor for atherosclerosis because high pressure in the arteries damages the endothelial lining of the vessels and promotes the formation of atherosclerotic

15 Relative risk of CVD






155/95 175/105 195/115 Blood pressure

* FIGURE 15-26

The risk of developing cardiovascular disease doubles with each 20/10 mm Hg increase in blood pressure.

plaques. In addition, high arterial blood pressure puts additional strain on the heart by increasing afterload [ p. 504]. When resistance in the arterioles is high, the myocardium must work harder to push the blood into the arteries. Amazingly, stroke volume in hypertensive patients remains constant up to a mean blood pressure of about 200 mm Hg, despite the increasing amount of work that the ventricle must perform as blood pressure increases. The cardiac muscle of the left ventricle responds to chronic high systemic resistance in the same way that skeletal muscle responds to a weight-lifting routine. The heart muscle hypertrophies, increasing the size and strength of the muscle bers. However, if resistance remains high over time, the heart muscle cannot meet the work load and begins to fail: cardiac output by the left ventricle decreases. If cardiac output of the right heart remains normal while the output from the left side decreases, uid collects in the lungs, creating pulmonary edema. At this point, a detrimental positive feedback loop begins. Oxygen exchange in the lungs diminishes because of the pulmonary edema, leading to less oxygen in the blood. Lack of oxygen for aerobic metabolism further weakens the heart, and its pumping effectiveness diminishes even more. Unless treated, this condition, known as congestive heart failure, eventually leads to death. Many of the treatments for hypertension have their basis in the cardiovascular physiology you have learned. For example, calcium entry into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle can be decreased by a class of drugs known as calcium channel blockers. These drugs bind to Ca* channel proteins, making it less likely that the channels will open in response to depolarization. With less Ca2* entry, vascular smooth muscle dilates, while in the heart the depolarization rate of the SA node and the force of contraction decrease. Vascular smooth



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

muscle is more sensitive than cardiac muscle to certain classes of calcium channel blockers, and it is possible to get vasodilation at drug doses that are low enough to have no effect on heart rate. Other tissues with Ca* channels, such as neurons, are only minimally affected by calcium channel blockers because their Ca* channels are of a different subtype. Other drugs used to treat hypertension include diuretics, which decrease blood volume, and beta-blocking drugs that target +1-receptors and decrease catecholamine stimulation of cardiac output. Two other groups of antihypertensive drugs,

the ACE inhibitors and the angiotensin receptor blockers, act by decreasing the activity of angiotensin, a powerful vasoconstrictor substance. You will learn more about angiotensin later in the book, when you study the integrated control of blood pressure by the cardiovascular and renal systems. In the future, we may be seeing new treatments for hypertension that are based on other aspects of the molecular physiology of the heart and blood vessels.


Essential Hypertension Kurt remained on the calcium channel blocker and diuretic, and after several months his cough went away and his blood pressure stabilized at 130/85 a signi cant improvement. Kurt s new diet also brought his total blood cholesterol down below 200 mg/dL plasma. By improving two of his controllable risk factors, Kurt decreased his chances of having a

heart attack. To learn more about hypertension and some of the therapies currently used to treat it, visit the web site of the American Heart Association ( Now check your understanding of this running problem by comparing your answers with the information in the summary table.





Why are people with high blood pressure at greater risk for having a hemorrhagic (or bleeding) stroke?

High blood pressure exerts force on the walls of the blood vessels.

If an area of blood vessel wall is weakened or damaged, high blood pressure may cause that area to rupture, allowing blood to leak out of the vessel into the surrounding tissues.


What is the rationale for reducing salt intake and taking a diuretic to control hypertension?

Salt causes water retention. Diuretics increase renal uid excretion.

Blood pressure increases if the circulating blood volume increases. By restricting salt in the diet, a person can decrease retention of uid in the extracellular compartment, which includes the plasma. Diuretics also help decrease blood volume.


Why would blocking the action of a vasoconstrictor lower blood pressure?

Blood pressure is determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance.

Resistance is inversely proportional to the radius of the blood vessels. Therefore, if blood vessels dilate as a result of blocking a vasoconstrictor, resistance and blood pressure decrease.


How do calcium channel blockers lower blood pressure?

Calcium entry from the extracellular uid plays an important role in both smooth muscle and cardiac muscle contraction.

Blocking Ca2* entry through Ca2* channels decreases the force of cardiac contraction and decreases the contractility of vascular smooth muscle. Both of these effects lower blood pressure.







Chapter Summary


CHAPTER SUMMARY Blood ow through the cardiovascular system is an excellent example of mass ow in the body. Cardiac contraction creates high pressure in the ventricles, and this pressure drives blood through the vessels of the systemic and pulmonary circuits, speeding up cell-to-cell communication. Resistance to ow is regulated by local and re ex control mechanisms that act on arteriolar smooth muscle and help match tissue

perfusion to tissue needs. The homeostatic baroreceptor re ex monitors arterial pressure to ensure adequate perfusion of the brain and heart. Capillary exchange of material between the plasma and interstitial uid compartments uses several transport mechanisms, including diffusion, transcytosis, and bulk ow.


Homeostatic regulation of the cardiovascular system is aimed at maintaining adequate blood ow to the brain and heart. (p. 513)


Total blood ow at any level of the circulation is equal to the cardiac output. (p. 514)

16. Arterial pressure is a balance between cardiac output and the resistance to blood flow offered by the arterioles (peripheral resistance). (p. 519; Fig. 15-8)

The Blood Vessels Cardiovascular Anatomy Review: Blood Vessel Structure & Function

3. Blood vessels are composed of layers of smooth muscle, elastic and brous connective tissue, and endothelium. (p. 514; Fig. 15-2)

4. Vascular smooth muscle maintains a state of muscle tone. (p. 514) 5. The walls of the aorta and major arteries are both stiff and springy. This property allows them to absorb energy and release it through elastic recoil. (p. 514)

6. Metarterioles regulate blood

ow through capillaries and allow white blood cells to go directly from arterioles to the venous circulation. (p. 515; Fig. 15-3)

7. Capillaries and postcapillary venules are the site of exchange between blood and interstitial uid. (p. 515)

8. Veins hold more than half of the blood in the circulatory system. Veins have thinner walls with less elastic tissue than arteries, so veins expand easily when they ll with blood. (p. 515)

9. Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels grow and develop, especially after birth. (p. 516)

Blood Pressure Cardiovascular: Measuring Blood Pressure 10. The ventricles create high pressure that is the driving force for blood ow. The aorta and arteries act as a pressure reservoir during ventricular relaxation. (p. 516; Fig. 15-4) 11. Blood pressure is highest in the arteries and decreases as blood ows through the circulatory system. At rest, average systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg, and average diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg. (p. 516; Fig. 15-5) 12. Pressure created by the ventricles can be felt as a pulse in the arteries. Pulse pressure equals systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure. (p. 516) 13. Blood ow against gravity in the veins is assisted by one-way valves and by the respiratory and skeletal muscle pumps. (p. 516; Fig. 15-6) 14. Arterial blood pressure is indicative of the driving pressure for blood ow. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is de ned as diastolic pressure *1/3 (systolic pressure + diastolic pressure). (p. 517) 15. Arterial blood pressure is usually measured with a sphygmomanometer. Blood squeezing through a compressed brachial artery makes Korotkoff sounds. (p. 518; Fig. 15-7)

17. If blood volume increases, blood pressure increases. If blood volume decreases, blood pressure decreases. (p. 520; Fig. 15-9) 18. Venous blood volume can be shifted to the arteries if arterial blood pressure falls. (p. 521; Fig. 15-10)

Resistance in the Arterioles Cardiovascular: Factors That Affect Blood Pressure 19. The arterioles are the main site of variable resistance in the systemic circulation. A small change in the radius of an arteriole creates a large change in resistance: R r 1/r4. (p. 522) 20. Arterioles regulate their own blood ow through myogenic autoregulation. Vasoconstriction increases the resistance offered by an arteriole and decreases the blood ow through the arteriole. (p. 523) 21. Arteriolar resistance is in uenced by local control mechanisms that match tissue blood ow to the metabolic needs of the tissue. Vasodilator paracrines include nitric oxide, H*, K*, CO2, prostaglandins, adenosine, and histamine. Low O2 causes vasodilation. Endothelins are powerful vasoconstrictors. (p. 523; Tbl. 15-2) 22. Active hyperemia is a process in which increased blood ow accompanies increased metabolic activity. Reactive hyperemia is an increase in tissue blood ow following a period of low perfusion. (pp. 523 524; Fig. 15-11) 23. Most systemic arterioles are under tonic sympathetic control. Norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction. Decreased sympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation. (p. 524) 24. Epinephrine binds to arteriolar ,-receptors and causes vasoconstriction. Epinephrine on -2-receptors, found in the arterioles of the heart, liver, and skeletal muscle, causes vasodilation. (p. 524)

Distribution of Blood to the Tissues 25. Changing the resistance of the arterioles affects mean arterial pressure and alters blood ow through the arteriole. (p. 526; Fig. 15-15) 26. The ow through individual arterioles depends on their resistance. The higher the resistance in an arteriole, the lower the blood ow in that arteriole: Flowarteriole r 1/Rarteriole. (p. 526) 27. Blood flow into individual capillaries can be regulated by precapillary sphincters. (p. 526; Fig. 15-16)

Exchange at the Capillaries Cardiovascular: Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics 28. Exchange of materials between the blood and the interstitial uid occurs primarily by diffusion. (p. 528)



Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

29. Continuous capillaries have leaky junctions between cells but also transport material using transcytosis. Continuous capillaries with tight junctions form the blood-brain barrier. (p. 527; Fig. 15-17)

Regulation of Blood Pressure

30. Fenestrated capillaries have pores that allow large volumes of uid to pass rapidly. (p. 527; Fig. 15-17)

37. The re ex control of blood pressure resides in the medulla oblongata. Baroreceptors in the carotid artery and the aorta monitor arterial blood pressure and trigger the baroreceptor reflex. (pp. 532 533; Figs. 15-22, 15-23)

31. The velocity of blood ow through the capillaries is slow, allowing diffusion to go to equilibrium. (p. 528; Fig. 15-18) 32. The mass movement of uid between the blood and the interstitial uid is bulk ow. Fluid movement is called ltration if the direction of ow is out of the capillary and absorption if the ow is directed into the capillary. (p. 528; Fig. 15-19) 33. The osmotic pressure difference between plasma and interstitial uid due to the presence of plasma proteins is the colloid osmotic pressure. (p. 529)

The Lymphatic System Fluids & Electrolytes: Electrolyte Homeostasis, Edema 34. About 3 liters of uid lter out of the capillaries each day. The lymphatic system returns this uid to the circulatory system. (p. 530; Fig. 15-20) 35. Lymph capillaries accumulate uid, interstitial proteins, and particulate matter by bulk ow. Lymph ow depends on smooth muscle in vessel walls, one-way valves, and the skeletal muscle pump. (p. 531) 36. The condition in which excess uid accumulates in the interstitial space is called edema. Factors that disrupt the normal balance between capillary ltration and absorption cause edema. (p. 531; Fig. 15-21)

Cardiovascular: Blood Pressure Regulation

38. Efferent output from the medullary cardiovascular control center goes to the heart and arterioles. Increased sympathetic activity increases heart rate and force of contraction. Increased parasympathetic activity slows heart rate. Increased sympathetic discharge at the arterioles causes vasoconstriction. There is no signi cant parasympathetic control of arterioles. (p. 533) 39. Cardiovascular function can be modulated by input from higher brain centers and from the respiratory control center of the medulla. (p. 533) 40. The baroreceptor re ex functions each time a person stands up. The decrease in blood pressure upon standing is known as orthostatic hypotension. (p. 535; Fig. 15-24)

Cardiovascular Disease 41. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Risk factors predict the likelihood that a person will develop cardiovascular disease during her or his lifetime. (p. 535) 42. Atherosclerosis is an in ammatory condition in which fatty deposits called plaques develop in arteries. If plaques are unstable, they may block the arteries by triggering blood clots. (p. 537; Fig. 15-25) 43. Hypertension is a signi cant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. (p. 539; Fig. 15-26)

QUESTIONS (Answers to the Review Questions begin on page A1). THE PHYSIOLOGY PLACE Access more review material online at The Physiology Place web site. There you ll nd review questions, problem-solving activities, case studies, ashcards, and direct links to both Interactive Physiology® and PhysioEx To access the site, go to www. and select Human Physiology, Fifth Edition.


List the four tissue components of blood vessel walls, in order from inner lining to outer covering. Brie y describe the importance of each tissue.


Blood ow to individual tissues is regulated by selective vasoconstriction and vasodilation of which vessels?


Aortic pressure reaches a typical high value of (give both numeric value and units) during , or contraction of the heart. As the heart relaxes during the event called , aortic pressure declines to a typical low value of . This blood pressure reading would be written as / .


The rapid pressure increase that occurs when the left ventricle pushes blood into the aorta can be felt as a pressure wave, or . What is the equation used to calculate the strength of this pressure wave?


List the factors that aid venous return to the heart.



The rst priority of blood pressure homeostasis is to maintain adequate perfusion to which two organs?


Match the types of systemic blood vessels with the terms that describe them. Each vessel type may have more than one match, and matching items may be used more than once. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)


arterioles arteries capillaries veins venules

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

store pressure generated by the heart have walls that are both stiff and elastic carry low-oxygen blood have thin walls of exchange epithelium act as a volume reservoir their diameter can be altered by neural input blood ow slowest through these vessels have lowest blood pressure are the main site of variable resistance


What is hypertension, and why is it a threat to a person s health?


When measuring a person s blood pressure, at what point in the procedure are you likely to hear Korotkoff sounds?

10. List three paracrines that cause vasodilation. What is the source of each one? In addition to paracrines, list two other ways to control smooth muscle contraction in arterioles.

Questions 11. What is hyperemia? How does active hyperemia differ from reactive hyperemia?


22. Compare and contrast the following sets of terms: (a) lymphatic capillaries and systemic capillaries

12. Most systemic arterioles are innervated by the branch of the nervous system. Increased sympathetic input will have what effect on arteriole diameter?

(b) roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches in blood pressure control

13. Match each event in the left column with all appropriate neurotransmitter(s) and receptor(s) from the list on the right.

(d) continuous capillaries and fenestrated capillaries

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

vasoconstriction of intestinal arterioles vasodilation of coronary arterioles increased heart rate decreased heart rate vasoconstriction of coronary arterioles

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

norepinephrine epinephrine acetylcholine -1-receptor ,-receptor -2-receptor nicotinic receptor muscarinic receptor

14. Which organs receive more than two-thirds of the cardiac output at rest? Which organs have the highest ow of blood on a per unit weight basis? 15. By looking at the density of capillaries in a tissue, you can make assumptions about what property of the tissue? Which tissue has the lowest capillary density? Which tissue has the highest? 16. What type of transport is used to move each of the following substances across the capillary endothelium? (a) oxygen

(c) lymph and blood (e) hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure in systemic capillaries 23. Calcium channel blockers prevent Ca2+ movement through Ca2+ channels. Explain two ways this action lowers blood pressure. Why are neurons and other cells unaffected by these drugs? 24. De ne myogenic autoregulation. What mechanisms have been proposed to explain it? 25. Left ventricular failure may be accompanied by edema, shortness of breath, and increased venous pressure. Explain how these signs and symptoms develop.



26. Robert is a 52-year-old nonsmoker. He weighs 180 lbs and stands 5.9/ tall, and his blood pressure averaged 145/95 on three successive visits to his doctor s of ce. His father, grandfather, and uncle all had heart attacks in their early 50s, and his mother died of a stroke at the age of 71.

(b) proteins

(a) Identify Robert s risk factors for coronary heart disease.

(c) glucose

(b) Does Robert have hypertension? Explain.

(d) water

(c) Robert s doctor prescribes a drug called a beta blocker. Explain the mechanism by which a beta-receptor-blocking drug may help lower blood pressure.

17. With which three physiological systems do the vessels of the lymphatic system interact? 18. De ne edema. List some ways in which it can arise. 19. De ne the following terms and explain their signi cance to cardiovascular physiology.

(a) If resistance in vessels 1 and 2 increases because of the presence of local paracrines but cardiac output is unchanged, what happens to MAP? What happens to ow through vessels 1 and 2? Through vessels 3 and 4?

(a) perfusion (b) colloid osmotic pressure (c) vasoconstriction (d) angiogenesis

(b) Homeostatic compensation occurs within seconds. Draw a re ex map to explain the compensation (stimulus, receptor, and so on).

(e) metarterioles (f) pericytes 20. The two major lipoprotein carriers of cholesterol are and . Which type is bad when present in the body in elevated amounts?


27. The following gure is a schematic representation of the systemic circulation. Use it to help answer the following questions. (CO * cardiac output, MAP * mean arterial pressure).


(c) When vessel 1 constricts, what happens to the ltration pressure in the capillaries downstream from that arteriole? MAP


21. Concept map: Map all the following factors that in uence mean arterial pressure. You may add additional terms. aorta

parasympathetic neuron


peripheral resistance


SA node

blood volume

sensory neuron

cardiac output

stroke volume

carotid artery

sympathetic neuron



heart rate

venous return

medulla oblongata


Arteries Left ventricle

Arterioles Resistance




Flow in vessels downstream




Chapter 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

28. Draw a re ex map that explains Anthony s vasovagal syncope at the sight of blood. Include all the steps of the re ex, and explain whether pathways are being stimulated or inhibited.

(a) What effect does this change in the aorta have on afterload? (b) If cardiac output remains unchanged, what happens to peripheral resistance and mean arterial pressure?

29. A physiologist placed a section of excised arteriole in a perfusion chamber containing saline. When the oxygen content of the saline perfusing ( owing through) the arteriole was reduced, the arteriole dilated. In a follow-up experiment, she used an isolated piece of arteriolar smooth muscle that had been stripped away from the other layers of the arteriole wall. When the oxygen content of the saline was reduced as in the rst experiment, the isolated muscle showed no response. What do these two experiments suggest about how low oxygen exerts local control over arterioles?

32. During fetal development, most blood in the pulmonary artery bypasses the lungs and goes into the aorta by way of a channel called the ductus arteriosus. Normally this fetal bypass channel closes during the rst day after birth, but each year about 4000 babies in the United States maintain a patent (open) ductus arteriosus and require surgery to close the channel.

30. The following graphs are recordings of contractions in an isolated frog heart. The intact frog heart is innervated by sympathetic neurons that increase heart rate and by parasympathetic neurons that decrease heart rate. Based on these four graphs, what conclusion can you draw about the mechanism of action of atropine? (Atropine does not cross the cell membrane).

(c) If the systemic side of the circulatory system is longer than the pulmonary side, which circuit has the greater resistance?

(a) Use this information to draw an anatomical diagram showing blood ow in an infant with a patent ductus arteriosus. (b) In the fetus, why does most blood bypass the lungs?

(d) If ow is equal in the pulmonary and systemic circulations, which side of the heart must generate more pressure to overcome resistance? (e) Use your answer to (d) to gure out which way blood will ow through a patent ductus arteriosus.



33. Using the appropriate equation, mathematically explain what happens to blood ow if the diameter of a blood vessel increases from 2 mm to 4 mm.

A (add epinephrine)

34. Duplicate the calculations that led William Harvey to believe that blood circulated in a closed loop: (a) Take your resting pulse. (b) Assume that your heart at rest pumps 70 mL/beat, and that 1 mL of blood weighs one gram. Calculate how long it would take your heart to pump your weight in blood. (2.2 pounds 1 kilogram)

B (add epinephrine + atropine)

35. Calculate the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure for a person with a blood pressure of 115/73. 36. According to the Fick principle, the oxygen consumption rate of an organ is equal to the blood ow through that organ times the amount of oxygen extracted from the blood as it ows through the organ:

C (add ACh)

Oxygen consumption rate blood ow (arterial oxygen content venous oxygen content) (mL O2 consumed/min)


(mL blood*min

mL O2*mL blood)

A person has a total body oxygen consumption rate of 250 mL/min. The oxygen content of blood in his aorta is 200 mL O2/L blood, the oxygen content of his pulmonary artery blood is 160 mL O2/L blood. What is his cardiac output?

(add ACh + atropine) 31. In advanced atherosclerosis, calci ed plaques cause the normally elastic aorta and arteries to become stiff and noncompliant.



Answers to Concept Check Questions

Page 518

Page 517 1.

Veins from the brain do not require valves because blood aided by gravity.


The carotid wave would arrive slightly ahead of the wrist wave because the distance from heart to carotid artery is shorter.


Pressure of 130/95 has the higher pulse pressure (35 mm Hg).


If heart rate increases, the relative time spent in diastole decreases. In that case, the contribution of systolic pressure to mean arterial pressure increases, and MAP increases.


Pulse pressure is 112 82.7 mm Hg.

ow is


44 mm Hg. MAP is 68

1/3 (44)


Page 524 6.



Extracellular K* dilates arterioles, which increases blood (see Tbl. 15-2).

Q ow

Page 526 8.

Epinephrine binding to myocardial ,1-receptors increases heart rate and force of contraction. Epinephrine binding to ,2-receptors on heart arterioles causes vasodilation.


Answers to Figure and Graph Questions

Page 000 Fig. 15-1: The pumps are arranged in series.

Page 525

Page 526

Fig. 15-13: Sympathetic innervation and epinephrine increase heart rate and stroke volume; parasympathetic innervation decreases heart rate. Sympathetic input causes vasoconstriction but epinephrine causes vasodilation in selected arterioles. For paracrine factors that in uence arteriolar diameter, see Table 15-2.

10. (a) The kidney has the highest blood ow per unit weight. (b) The heart has the lowest total blood ow.

Page 526

Page 530

Fig. 15-14: Blood ow through the lungs is 5 L/min.

11. Loss of plasma proteins will decrease colloid osmotic pressure. As a result, hydrostatic pressure will have a greater effect in the ltration-absorption balance, and ltration will increase.

Page 529


+-Receptors have lower af nity for epinephrine than ,2-receptors, so the ,2-receptors dominate and arterioles dilate.

12. Using osmotic pressure rather than osmolarity allows a direct comparison between absorption pressure and ltration pressure, both of which are expressed in mm Hg.

Fig. 15-18: (a) Velocity of ow is inversely proportional to area: as area increases, velocity decreases. (b) Changing only cross-sectional area has no effect on ow rate because ow rate is determined by cardiac output.

Page 532 13. If the left ventricle fails, blood backs up into the left atrium and pulmonary veins, and then into lung capillaries. Edema in the lungs is known as pulmonary edema. 14. Low-protein diets result in a low concentration of plasma proteins. Capillary absorption is reduced while ltration remains constant, resulting in edema and ascites.

Page 535 15. The most likely ion is Na* moving into the receptor cell.

Page 530 Fig. 15-19: Net ltration will increase as a result of the increased hydrostatic pressure.

Page 533 Fig. 15-22: SA node: muscarinic cholinergic receptors for ACh and ,1-receptors for catecholamines. Ventricles: ,1-receptors for catecholamines. Arterioles and veins: +-receptors for norepinephrine.

Page 535 16. Stimulus: sight, sound, and smell of the T. rex. Receptors: eyes, ears, and nose. Integrating center: cerebral cortex, with descending pathways through the limbic system. Divergent pathways go to the cardiovascular control center, which increases sympathetic output to heart and arterioles. A second descending spinal pathway goes to the adrenal medulla, which releases epinephrine. Epinephrine on ,2-receptors of liver, heart, and skeletal muscle arterioles causes vasodilation of those arterioles. Norepinephrine onto +-receptors in other arterioles causes vasoconstriction. Both catecholamines increase heart rate and force of contraction.

Page 536 Fig. 15-24: Arterioles and veins: norepinephrine, +-receptors. Ventricles: norepinephrine, ,1-receptors. SA node: norepinephrine, ,1-receptors; and ACh, muscarinic receptors.



Blood Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood

553 Mature Red Blood Cells Lack a Nucleus

Red Blood Cells

547 Plasma Is Extracellular Matrix

555 Hemoglobin Synthesis Requires Iron

549 Cellular Elements Include RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets

556 RBCs Live About Four Months 556 RBC Disorders Decrease Oxygen Transport

Blood Cell Production

Platelets and Coagulation

550 Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow

559 Platelets Are Small Fragments of Cells

551 Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Cytokines

559 Hemostasis Prevents Blood Loss from Damaged Vessels

551 Colony-Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis

560 Platelet Activation Begins the Clotting Process

552 Thrombopoietin Regulates Platelet Production

561 Coagulation Converts a Platelet Plug into a Clot

552 Erythropoietin Regulates RBC Production

563 Anticoagulants Prevent Coagulation

BACKGROUND BASICS Protein structure: 31 Connective tissue: 80 Phagocytosis: 152 Second messenger cascade: 184 Viscosity and resistance: 473 Collagen: 80 Cell organelles: 63 Cytokines: 180

Red blood cells, white blood cells (yellow), and platelets (pink)

Who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him? Macbeth, V, i, 42, by William Shakespeare

Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood



Blood Doping in Athletes Athletes spend hundreds of hours training, trying to build their endurance. For Johann Muehlegg, a cross-country skier at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics, it appeared that his training had paid off when he captured three gold medals. On the last day of the Games, however, Olympics of cials expelled Muehlegg and stripped him of his gold medal in the 50kilometer classical race. The reason? Muehlegg had tested positive for a performance-enhancing chemical that increased the oxygen-carrying capacity of his blood. Officials claimed Muehlegg s endurance in the grueling race was the result of blood doping, not training. 547






lood, the uid that circulates in the cardiovascular system, has occupied a prominent place throughout history as an almost mystical uid. Humans undoubtedly had made the association between blood and life by the time they began to fashion tools and hunt animals. A wounded animal that lost blood would weaken and die if the blood loss was severe enough. The logical conclusion was that blood was necessary for existence. This observation eventually led to the term lifeblood, meaning anything essential for existence. Ancient Chinese physicians linked blood to energy ow in the body. They wrote about the circulation of blood through the heart and blood vessels long before William Harvey described it in seventeenth-century Europe. In China, changes in blood ow were used as diagnostic clues to illness. Chinese physicians were expected to recognize some 50 variations in the pulse. Because blood was considered a vital uid to be conserved and maintained, bleeding patients to cure disease was not a standard form of treatment. In contrast, Western civilizations came to believe that disease-causing evil spirits circulated in the blood. The way to remove these spirits was to remove the blood containing them. Because blood was recognized as an essential uid, however, bloodletting had to be done judiciously. Veins were opened with knives or sharp instruments (venesection), or bloodsucking leeches were applied to the skin. In ancient India, people believed that leeches could distinguish between healthy and infected blood. There is no written evidence that venesection was practiced in ancient Egypt, but the work carried out by Galen of Pergamum in the second century A.D. in uenced Western medicine for nearly 2000 years. This early Greek physician advocated bleeding as treatment for many disorders. The location,


timing, and frequency of the bleeding depended on the condition, and the physician was instructed to remove enough blood to bring the patient to the point of fainting. Over the years, this practice undoubtedly killed more people than it cured. What is even more remarkable is the fact that as late as 1923, an American medical textbook advocated bleeding for treating certain infectious diseases, such as pneumonia! Now that we better understand the importance of blood in the immune response, it is doubtful that modern medicine will ever again turn to blood removal as a nonspeci c means of treating disease. It is still used, however, for selected hematological disorders [haima, blood].

PLASMA AND THE CELLULAR ELEMENTS OF BLOOD What is this remarkable uid that ows through the circulatory system? Blood makes up one-fourth of the extracellular uid, the internal environment that bathes cells and acts as a buffer between cells and the external environment. Blood is the circulating portion of the extracellular uid, responsible for carrying material from one part of the body to another. Total blood volume in a 70-kg man is equal to about 7% of his total body weight, or 0.07 * 70 kg + 4.9 kg. Thus, if we assume that 1 kg of blood occupies a volume of 1 liter, a 70-kg man has about 5 liters of blood. Of this volume, about 2 liters is composed of blood cells, while the remaining 3 liters is composed of plasma, the uid portion of the blood. In this chapter we present an overview of the components of blood. We consider the functions of plasma, red blood cells, and platelets in this chapter but will reserve detailed discussion of hemoglobin for Chapter 18, and of white blood cells and blood types for Chapter 24.

Plasma Is Extracellular Matrix Plasma is the uid portion of the blood, within which cellular elements are suspended (Fig. 16-1 *). Water is the main component of plasma, accounting for about 92% of its weight. Proteins account for another 7%. The remaining 1% is dissolved organic molecules (amino acids, glucose, lipids, and nitrogenous wastes), ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, H+, Ca2+, and HCO3-), trace elements and vitamins, and dissolved oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Plasma is identical in composition to interstitial uid except for the presence of plasma proteins. Albumins are the most prevalent type of protein in the plasma, making up about 60% of the total. Albumins and nine other proteins including globulins, the clotting protein brinogen, and the iron-transporting protein transferrin make up more than 90% of all plasma proteins. The liver makes most plasma proteins and secretes them into the blood. Some globulins, known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are synthesized and secreted by specialized blood cells rather than by the liver.



Chapter 16 Blood


Amino acids








Organic molecules

such as Lipids

Trace elements and vitamins

Nitrogenous waste

CO2 Gases

such as O2


is composed of


Red blood cells

Monocytes Cellular elements

White blood cells


Neutrophils Platelets



0 5 10


* FIGURE 16-1

Blood consists of plasma and cellular elements.


Blood Cell Production

TABLE 16-1


Functions of Plasma Proteins




Albumins (multiple types)


Major contributors to colloid osmotic pressure of plasma; carriers for various substances

Globulins (multiple types)

Liver and lymphoid tissue

Clotting factors, enzymes, antibodies, carriers for various substances



Forms brin threads essential to blood clotting


Liver and other tissues

Iron transport

The presence of proteins in the plasma makes the osmotic pressure of the blood higher than that of the interstitial uid. This osmotic gradient tends to pull water from the interstitial uid into the capillaries, as you learned in Chapter 15 [ p. 528]. Plasma proteins participate in many functions, including blood clotting and defense against foreign invaders. In addition, they act as carriers for steroid hormones, cholesterol, drugs, and certain ions such as iron (Fe2+). Finally, some plasma proteins act as hormones or as extracellular enzymes. Table 16-1 * summarizes the functions of plasma proteins.

known as phagocytes because they can engulf and ingest foreign particles such as bacteria (phagocytosis) [ p. 152]. Lymphocytes are sometimes called immunocytes because they are responsible for speci c immune responses directed against invaders. Basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils are called granulocytes because they contain cytoplasmic inclusions that give them a granular appearance.

Cellular Elements Include RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets

2. Why do we say that erythrocytes and platelets are not fully functional cells?

Three main cellular elements are found in blood (Fig. 16-1): red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes [erythros, red]; white blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes [leukos, white]; and platelets or thrombocytes [thrombo-, lump, clot]. White blood cells are the only fully functional cells in the circulation. Red blood cells have lost their nuclei by the time they enter the bloodstream, and platelets, which also lack a nucleus, are cell fragments that have split off a relatively large parent cell known as a megakaryocyte [mega, extremely large + karyon, kernel + -cyte, cell]. Red blood cells play a key role in transporting oxygen from lungs to tissues, and carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs. Platelets are instrumental in coagulation, the process by which blood clots prevent blood loss in damaged vessels. White blood cells play a key role in the body s immune responses, defending the body against foreign invaders, such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Although most white blood cells circulate through the body in the blood, their work is usually carried out in the tissues rather than in the circulatory system. Blood contains ve types of mature white blood cells: (1) lymphocytes, (2) monocytes, (3) neutrophils, (4) eosinophils, and (5) basophils. Monocytes that leave the circulation and enter the tissues develop into macrophages. Tissue basophils are called mast cells. The types of white blood cells may be grouped according to common morphological or functional characteristics. Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages are collectively



1. Name the ve types of leukocytes.

3. On the basis of what you have learned about the origin and role of plasma proteins, explain why patients with advanced liver degeneration frequently suffer from edema [ p. 531]. Answers: p. 567

BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION Where do these different blood cells come from? They are all descendants of a single precursor cell type known as the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (Fig. 16-2 *). This cell type is found primarily in bone marrow, a soft tissue that lls the hollow center of bones. Pluripotent stem cells have the remarkable ability to develop into many different cell types. As they specialize, they narrow their possible fates. First they become uncommitted stem cells, then progenitor cells that are committed to developing into one or perhaps two cell types. Progenitor cells differentiate into red blood cells, lymphocytes, other white blood cells, and megakaryocytes, the parent cells of platelets. It is estimated that only about one out of every 100,000 cells in the bone marrow is an uncommitted stem cell, making it dif cult to isolate and study these cells. In recent years scientists have been working to isolate and grow uncommitted hematopoietic stem cells to use as replacements in patients whose own stem cells have been killed by cancer chemotherapy. Originally scientists obtained these stem cells from bone marrow or peripheral blood. Now umbilical cord blood, collected at birth, has been found to be a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells that can be used for transplants in



Chapter 16 Blood

Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell


Uncommitted stem cells

Committed progenitor cells Lymphocyte stem cells






* FIGURE 16-2







Hematopoiesis. Cells below the horizontal line are the pre-

dominant forms found circulating in the blood. Cells above the line are found mostly in the bone marrow.

patients with hematological diseases such as leukemia. Public and private cord blood banking programs are active in the United States and Europe, and the American National Marrow Donor Program Registry now includes genetic marker information from banked cord blood to help patients nd stem cell matches. Currently researchers are working on techniques for culturing cord blood to increase the number of stem cells in each unit.

Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis [haima, blood + poiesis, formation], the synthesis of blood cells, begins early in embryonic development and continues throughout a person s life. In about the third week of fetal development, specialized cells in the yolk sac of the

Blood Cell Production

TABLE 16-2


Cytokines Involved in Hematopoiesis




Erythropoietin (EPO)

Kidney cells primarily

Red blood cells

Thrombopoietin (TPO)

Liver primarily


Colony-stimulating factors, interleukins, stem cell factor

Endothelium and broblasts of bone marrow, leukocytes

All types of blood cells; mobilizes hematopoietic stem cells

embryo form clusters. Some of these cell clusters are destined to become the endothelial lining of blood vessels, while others become blood cells. The common embryological origin of the endothelium and blood cells perhaps explains why many cytokines that control hematopoiesis are released by the vascular endothelium. As the embryo develops, blood cell production spreads from the yolk sac to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. By birth, the liver and spleen no longer produce blood cells. Hematopoiesis continues in the marrow of all the bones of the skeleton until age ve. As the child continues to age, the active regions of marrow decrease. In adults, the only areas producing blood cells are the pelvis, spine, ribs, cranium, and proximal ends of long bones. Active bone marrow is red because it contains hemoglobin, the oxygen-binding protein of red blood cells. Inactive marrow is yellow because of an abundance of adipocytes (fat cells). (You can see the difference between red and yellow marrow the next time you look at bony cuts of meat in the grocery store.) Although blood synthesis in adults is limited, the liver, spleen, and inactive (yellow) regions of marrow can resume blood cell production in times of need. In the regions of marrow that are actively producing blood cells, about 25% of the developing cells are red blood cells, while 75% are destined to become white blood cells. The life span of white blood cells is considerably shorter than that of red blood cells, and so WBCs must be replaced more frequently. For example, neutrophils have a six-hour half-life, and the body must make more than 100 million neutrophils each day in order to replace those that die. Red blood cells, on the other hand, live for nearly four months in the circulation.

Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Cytokines What controls the production and development of blood cells? The chemical factors known as cytokines are responsible. Cytokines are peptides or proteins released from one cell that affect the growth or activity of another cell [ p. 180]. Chapter 7 describes how newly discovered hormones are identi ed by the word factor, and the same applies to cytokines. When rst discovered, they are often called factors and given a

modi er that describes their actions: growth factor, differentiating factor, trophic factor. Some of the best-known cytokines in hematopoiesis are the colony-stimulating factors, molecules made by endothelial cells and white blood cells. Others are the interleukins [inter-, between + leuko, white], such as IL-3. The name interleukin was rst given to cytokines released by one white blood cell to act on another white blood cell. Numbered interleukin names, such as interleukin-3, are given to cytokines once their amino acid sequences have been identi ed. Interleukins also play important roles in the immune system, as we discuss in Chapter 24. Another hematopoietic cytokine is erythropoietin, which controls red blood cell synthesis. Erythropoietin is usually called a hormone, but technically it ts the de nition of a cytokine because it is made on demand rather than stored in vesicles. Table 16-2 * lists a few of the many cytokines linked to hematopoiesis. The role cytokines play in blood cell production is so complicated that one review on this topic was titled Regulation of hematopoiesis in a sea of chemokine family members with a plethora of redundant activities !* Because of the complexity of the subject, we give only an overview of the key hematopoietic cytokines.

Colony-Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were identi ed and named for their ability to stimulate the growth of leukocyte colonies in culture. These cytokines, made by endothelial cells, marrow broblasts, and white blood cells, regulate leukocyte production and development, or leukopoiesis. CSFs induce both cell division (mitosis) and cell maturation in stem cells. Once a leukocyte matures, it loses its ability to undergo mitosis. One fascinating aspect of leukopoiesis is that production of new white blood cells is regulated in part by existing white blood cells. This form of control allows leukocyte development to be very speci c and tailored to the body s needs. When the Broxmeyer, H. E. and C. H. Kim, Experimental Hematology 27(7): 1113 1123, *1999, July.



Chapter 16 Blood

Hematocrit Hemoglobin (g Hb/dL* blood)

37% 47%

14 17

12 16

4 11 * 103

4 11 * 103


50% 70%

50% 70%


1% 4%

1% 4%

98% Dissolved O2 < 2% (~PO ) 2

Venous blood PO2 = 40 mm Hg PCO2 = 46 mm Hg

The presence of CO2 and H facilitates formation of carbaminohemoglobin because both these factors decrease hemoglobin s binding af nity for oxygen (see Fig. 18-10).

CO2 Removal at the Lungs When venous blood reaches the lungs, the processes that took place in the systemic capillaries reverse (bottom portion of Fig. 18-14). The PCO2 of the alveoli is lower than that of venous blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Therefore, CO2 diffuses down its pressure gradient in other words, out of plasma into the alve- * FIGURE oli and the plasma PCO2 begins to fall. The decrease in plasma PCO2 allows dissolved CO2 to diffuse out of the red blood cells. As CO2 levels in the red blood cells decrease, the equilibrium of the CO2-HCO3 reaction is disturbed, shifting toward production of more CO2. Removal of CO2 causes H to leave the hemoglobin molecules, and the chloride shift reverses: Cl returns to the plasma in exchange for HCO3 moving back into the red blood cells. The HCO3 and newly released H re-form into carbonic acid, which is then converted into water and CO2. This CO2 is then free to diffuse out of the red blood cell and into the alveoli. Figure 18-15 * shows the combined transport of CO2 and O2 in the blood. At the alveoli, O2 diffuses down its pressure gradient, moving from the alveoli into the plasma and then from the plasma into the red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds to O2, increasing the amount of oxygen that can be transported to the cells.

Systemic circulation


CO2 Cells

PO2 * 40 mm Hg PCO2 * 46 mm Hg

18-15 Summary of O2 and CO2 exchange and transport

At the cells, the process reverses. Because PO2 is lower in cells than in the arterial blood, O2 diffuses from the plasma into the cells. The decrease in plasma PO2 causes hemoglobin to release O2, making additional oxygen available to enter cells. Carbon dioxide from aerobic metabolism simultaneously leaves cells and enters the blood, dissolving in the plasma. From there, CO2 enters red blood cells, where most is converted to HCO3 and H . The HCO3 is returned to the plasma in exchange for a Cl while the H binds to hemoglobin. A fraction of the CO2 that enters red blood cells also binds directly to hemoglobin. At the lungs, the process reverses as CO2 diffuses out of the pulmonary capillaries and into the alveoli. To understand fully how the respiratory system coordinates delivery of oxygen to the lungs with transport of oxygen



Chapter 18 Gas Exchange and Transport


Emotions and voluntary control


O2 and pH

Higher brain centers

Medullary chemoreceptors

Carotid and aortic chemoreceptors

15 1 2

14 13

3 4 Limbic system

12 5

Afferent sensory neurons



Medulla oblongata and pons

8 11


Somatic motor neurons (inspiration)

Somatic motor neurons (expiration)

9 Inspiration



Scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles

External intercostals


Internal intercostals

Abdominal muscles


Match the numbers on the figure to the boxes of the map.

* FIGURE 18-16



Integrating centers

Sensory receptors

Efferent neurons

Afferent neurons


The re ex control of ventilation. Chemoreceptors monitor

blood gases and pH. Control networks in the brain stem regulate activity in somatic motor neurons leading to respiratory muscles.

in the circulation, we now consider the central nervous system control of ventilation. C O NC E P T


12. How would an obstruction of the airways affect alveolar venAnswers: p. 621 tilation, arterial PCO2, and the body s pH?

REGULATION OF VENTILATION Breathing is a rhythmic process that usually occurs without conscious thought or awareness. In that respect, it resembles the rhythmic beating of the heart. However, skeletal muscles,

unlike autorhythmic cardiac muscles, are not able to contract spontaneously. Instead, skeletal muscle contraction must be initiated by somatic motor neurons, which in turn are controlled by the central nervous system. In the respiratory system, contraction of the diaphragm and other muscles is initiated by a spontaneously ring network of neurons in the brain stem (Fig. 18-16 *). Breathing occurs automatically throughout a person s life but can also be controlled voluntarily, up to a point. Complicated synaptic interactions between neurons in the network create the rhythmic cycles of inspiration and expiration, in uenced continuously by sensory input, especially that from chemoreceptors for CO2,

Regulation of Ventilation

O2, and H*. Ventilation pattern depends in large part on the levels of those three substances in the arterial blood and extracellular uid. The neural control of breathing is one of the few black boxes left in systems-level physiology. Although we know the major regions of the brain stem that are involved, the details remain elusive and controversial. The brain stem network that controls breathing behaves like a central pattern generator [ p. 458], with intrinsic rhythmic activity that probably arises from pacemaker neurons with unstable membrane potentials. Some of our understanding of how ventilation is controlled has come from observing patients with brain damage. Other information has come from animal experiments in which neural connections between major parts of the brain stem are severed, or sections of brain are studied in isolation. Research on CNS respiratory control is dif cult because of the complexity of the neural network and its anatomical location, but in recent years scientists have developed better techniques for studying the system. The details that follow represent a contemporary model for the control of ventilation. Although some parts of the model are well supported with experimental evidence, other aspects are still under investigation. This model states that: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Respiratory neurons in the medulla control inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Neurons in the pons integrate sensory information and interact with medullary neurons to in uence ventilation. The rhythmic pattern of breathing arises from a neural network with spontaneously discharging neurons. Ventilation is subject to continuous modulation by various chemoreceptor- and mechanoreceptor-linked re exes and by higher brain centers.

Neurons in the Medulla Control Breathing Classic descriptions of how the brain controls ventilation divided the brain stem into various control centers. More recent descriptions, however, are less speci c about assigning function to particular centers and instead look at complex interactions between neurons in a network. We know that respiratory neurons are concentrated bilaterally in two areas of the medulla oblongata. Figure 18-17 * shows these areas on the left side of the brain stem. One area called the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) contains the dorsal respiratory group (DRG) of neurons that control mostly muscles of inspiration. Output from the DRG goes via the phrenic nerves to the diaphragm and via the intercostal nerves to the intercostal muscles. In addition, the NTS receives sensory information from peripheral chemo- and mechanoreceptors through the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves (cranial nerves X and IX; p. 310). Respiratory neurons in the pons receive sensory information from the DRG and in turn in uence the initiation and


Higher brain centers

Pons PRG

NTS Medullary chemoreceptors

Sensory input from CN IX, X (mechanical and chemosensory)

DRG Medulla

pre-Bötzinger complex VRG Output to expiratory, some inspiratory, pharynx, larynx, and tongue muscles KEY

PRG = Pontine respiratory group DRG = Dorsal respiratory group

* FIGURE 18-17

Output primarily to inspiratory muscles

VRG = Ventral respiratory group NTS = Nucleus tractus solitarius

Neural networks in the brain stem con-

trol ventilation.

termination of inspiration. The pontine respiratory groups (previously called the pneumotaxic center) and other pontine neurons provide tonic input to the medullary networks to help coordinate a smooth respiratory rhythm. The ventral respiratory group (VRG) of the medulla has multiple regions with different functions. One area known as the pre-Bötzinger complex contains spontaneously ring neurons that may act as the basic pacemaker for the respiratory rhythm. Other areas control muscles used for active expiration or for greater-than-normal inspiration, such as occurs during vigorous exercise. In addition, nerve bers from the VRG innervate muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and tongue to keep the upper airways open during breathing. Inappropriate relaxation of these muscles during sleep contributes to



Chapter 18 Gas Exchange and Transport

Tidal volume (liters)

Number of active inspiratory neurons

* FIGURE 18-18

Neural activity cycles during quiet breathing

ive sit oop o p kl d pi bac a R ed fe

Inspiration shuts off


0 Inspiration 2 sec

Passive expiration 3 sec

Inspiration 2 sec

Time During inspiration, the activity of inspiratory neurons increases steadily, apparently through a positive feedback mechanism. At the end of inspiration, the activity shuts off abruptly and expiration takes place through recoil of elastic lung tissue.


GRAPH QUESTION What is the ventilation rate of the person in this example?

obstructive sleep apnea, a sleeping disorder associated with snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness. The integrated action of the respiratory control networks can be seen by monitoring electrical activity in the phrenic nerve and other motor nerves (Fig. 18-18 *). During quiet breathing, a pacemaker initiates each cycle, and inspiratory neurons gradually increase stimulation of the inspiratory muscles. This increase is sometimes called ramping because of the shape of the graph of inspiratory neuron activity. A few inspiratory neurons re to begin the ramp. The ring of these neurons recruits other inspiratory neurons to re in an apparent positive feedback loop. As more neurons re, more skeletal muscle bers are recruited. The rib cage expands smoothly as the diaphragm contracts. At the end of inspiration, the inspiratory neurons abruptly stop ring, and the respiratory muscles relax. Over the next few seconds, passive expiration occurs because of elastic recoil of the inspiratory muscles and elastic lung tissue. However, some motor neuron activity can be observed during passive expiration, suggesting that perhaps muscles in the upper airways contract to slow the ow of air out of the respiratory system. Many neurons of the VRG remain inactive during quiet respiration. They function primarily during forced breathing, when inspiratory movements are exaggerated, and during active

expiration. In forced breathing, increased activity of inspiratory neurons stimulates accessory muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoids. Contraction of these accessory muscles enhances expansion of the thorax by raising the sternum and upper ribs. With active expiration, expiratory neurons from the VRG activate the internal intercostal and abdominal muscles. There seems to be some communication between inspiratory and expiratory neurons, as inspiratory neurons are inhibited during active expiration.

Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, and pH In uence Ventilation Sensory input from central and peripheral chemoreceptors modi es the rhythmicity of the control network to help maintain blood gas homeostasis. Carbon dioxide is the primary stimulus for changes in ventilation. Oxygen and plasma pH play lesser roles. The chemoreceptors for oxygen and carbon dioxide are strategically associated with the arterial circulation. If too little oxygen is present in arterial blood destined for the brain and other tissues, the rate and depth of breathing increase. If the rate of CO2 production by the cells exceeds the rate of CO2 removal by the lungs, arterial PCO2 increases, and ventilation is intensied to match CO2 removal to production. These homeostatic

Regulation of Ventilation

re exes operate constantly, keeping arterial PO2 and PCO2 within a narrow range. Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid and aortic arteries sense changes in the PO2, pH, and PCO2 of the plasma (Fig. 18-16). These carotid and aortic bodies are close to the locations of the baroreceptors involved in re ex control of blood pressure [ p. 533]. Central chemoreceptors in the brain respond to changes in the concentration of CO2 in the cerebrospinal uid. These central receptors lie on the ventral surface of the medulla, close to neurons involved in respiratory control.

Peripheral Chemoreceptors When specialized glomus cells [glomus, a ball-shaped mass] in the carotid and aortic bodies are activated by a decrease in PO2 or pH or by an increase in PCO2, they trigger a re ex increase in ventilation. Under most normal circumstances, oxygen is not an important factor in modulating ventilation because arterial PO2 must fall to less than 60 mm Hg before ventilation is stimulated. This large decrease in PO2 is equivalent to ascending to an altitude of 3000 m. (For reference, Denver is located at an altitude of 1609 m). However, any condition that reduces plasma pH or increases PCO2 will activate the carotid and aortic glomus cells and increase ventilation. The details of glomus cell function remain to be worked out, but the basic mechanism by which these chemoreceptors respond to low oxygen is similar to the mechanism you learned for insulin release by pancreatic beta cells [ p. 171] or taste transduction in taste buds [ p. 353]. In all three examples, a stimulus inactivates K* channels, causing the receptor cell to depolarize (Fig. 18-19 *). Depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca2* channels, and Ca2* entry causes exocytosis of neurotransmitter onto the sensory neuron. In the carotid and aortic bodies, neurotransmitters initiate action potentials in sensory neurons leading to the brain stem respiratory networks, signaling them to increase ventilation. Because the peripheral chemoreceptors respond only to dramatic changes in arterial PO2, arterial oxygen concentrations do not play a role in the everyday regulation of ventilation. However, unusual physiological conditions, such as ascending to high altitude, and pathological conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), can reduce arterial PO2 to levels that are low enough to activate the peripheral chemoreceptors.

Central Chemoreceptors The most important chemical controller of ventilation is carbon dioxide, mediated both through the peripheral chemoreceptors just discussed and through central chemoreceptors located in the medulla (Fig. 18-20 *). These receptors set the respiratory pace, providing continuous input into the control network. When arterial PCO2 increases, CO2 crosses the blood-brain bar-


Blood vessel Lo w P O


1 Low PO 2

2 K+ channels close

3 Cell depolarizes Glomus cell in carotid body

5 Ca2+ entry

4 Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel opens

6 Exocytosis of neurotransmitters Receptor on sensory neuron Action potential

7 Signal to medullary centers to increase ventilation

* FIGURE 18-19

The carotid body oxygen sensor releases neurotransmitter when PO2 decreases.

rier and activates the central chemoreceptors. These receptors signal the control network to increase the rate and depth of ventilation, thereby enhancing alveolar ventilation and removing CO2 from the blood (Fig. 18-21 *). Although we say that the central chemoreceptors monitor CO2, they actually respond to pH changes in the cerebrospinal uid (CSF). Carbon dioxide that diffuses across the blood-brain barrier into the CSF is converted to bicarbonate and H*: CO2 * H2O 888z y888 H2CO3+ 888z y888 H* * HCO3+ Experiments indicate that the H* produced by this reaction is what initiates the chemoreceptor re ex, rather than the increased level of CO2. Note, however, that pH changes in the plasma do not usually in uence the central chemoreceptors directly. Although plasma PCO2 enters the CSF readily, plasma H* crosses the blood-brain barrier very slowly and therefore has little direct effect on the central chemoreceptors.



Chapter 18 Gas Exchange and Transport Cerebral capillary

CO2 + H2O

Blood-brain barrier





toward normal rates as the chemoreceptor response adapts by mechanisms that are not clear. Fortunately for people with chronic lung diseases, the response of peripheral chemoreceptor to low arterial PO2 remains intact over time, even though the central chemoreceptor response adapts to high PCO2. In some situations, low PO2 becomes the primary chemical stimulus for ventilation. For example, patients with severe chronic lung disease, such as COPD, have chronic hypercapnia and hypoxia. Their arterial PCO2 may rise to 50 55 mm Hg (normal is 35 45) while their PO2 falls to 45 50 mm Hg (normal 75 100). Because these levels are chronic, the chemoreceptor response adapts to the elevated PCO2. Most of the chemical stimulus for ventilation in this situation then comes from low PO2, sensed by the carotid and aortic chemoreceptors. If these patients are given too much oxygen, they may stop breathing because their chemical stimulus for ventilation is eliminated. The central chemoreceptors respond to decreases in arterial PCO2 as well as to increases. If alveolar PCO2 falls, as it might during hyperventilation, plasma PCO2 and cerebrospinal uid PCO2 follow suit. As a result, central chemoreceptor activity declines, and the control network slows the ventilation rate. When ventilation decreases, carbon dioxide begins to accumulate in alveoli and the plasma. Eventually, the arterial PCO2 rises above the threshold level for the chemoreceptors. At that point, the receptors re, and the control network again increases ventilation.

H+ + HCO3 Cerebrospinal fluid

Central chemoreceptor Medulla Respiratory control centers


* FIGURE 18-20

Central chemoreceptors monitor CO2 in cerebrospinal uid. CA * carbonic anhydrase. When plasma PCO2 increases, the chemoreceptors initially respond strongly by increasing ventilation. However, if PCO2 remains elevated for several days, ventilation falls back

Plasma PCO2


CO2 in CSF

Arterial PCO +

H + HCO3

Stimulates central chemoreceptor




H + in plasma


Stimulates peripheral chemoreceptor


Plasma PO2 Negative feedback Plasma PCO2

* FIGURE 18-21 Chemoreceptor response to changes in plasma CO2

Plasma PO 2
Human Physiology - An Integrated Approach 5th-PDF

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